Traditional recipes

Caribbean cake

Caribbean cake

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The theory may be easy, but a little long, definitely worth doing! So let me start writing how I did:

Pandispanul: I separated the eggs, rubbed the yolks with 30 grams of sugar, vanilla and oil until they became creamy. I beat the egg whites with 80 gr sugar, I added the yolk cream, I mixed from the bottom up, I sifted flour, starch, cocoa and baking powder with a spoon. I mixed lightly. I mixed the rooster separately and added it to the pandispan dough. I diluted it with a little rum. I lightly poured it into a wallpapered heart shape and put it in the oven at 180 degrees for 30 minutes.

Rum bath: I poured the rum in a large cup, mixed it with a little warm water and sugar (to taste) and watered the pandispan leaves very well.

Pistachio foam: I beat well 2 egg whites with 100 gr sugar until it became hard foam. I put the gelatin in cold water and soaked it for 10 minutes. I put the yolks on a steam bath with 30 ml of soy milk and mixed. I added the well drained gelatin sheets and heated the composition a little, just so it doesn't boil. I added the pistachio mixed well, it became a thick cream that I mixed with the egg whites from the bottom up. Then I added 2 or 3 tablespoons of rum. I left it to thicken for 2 minutes and poured it over the first slice of pandispan closed in a detachable shape. I cooled and hardened.

Coconut foam: I beat well 2 egg whites with 90 sugar until it became foam, I put the gelatin sheets soaked in water for 10 minutes. I heated a little soy milk and added the well drained gelatin sheets, I dissolved and mixed until I saw that it thickened a little, then I added to the egg white foam, 2 or 3 tablespoons of rum and mixed from the bottom up with a spatula. I left it to thicken for 2 minutes and poured it over the second layer of wet pandispan. I put it in the fridge.

Strawberry jelly: I mixed 500 gr of strawberries until it became juice, I added a little lemon juice and sugar to taste, I heated it and put an envelope of gelatin. I mixed it until it thickened and I poured it into a cake form lined with transparent foil, I put it in the freezer until it cooled and so I could put it over the cake so as not to soften the coconut foam.

I garnished with icing (beaten egg whites with sugar and lemon juice), strawberries and finely mixed coconut.

The subjectivity of God's people

A third essential element to consider in order to develop a reflection on evangelization is, of course, the ecclesial.

The Church is not only an auxiliary external organization, but must be understood as the living memory of Christ and the privileged place-space-of access of man to the Church, to announce Jesus Christ is not the function of the Church, but is its very nature, its very being. they, rooted in the Eucharist [1].

Emblematic regarding this aspect is the confrontation of the first pages of the Synoptics with the first pages of the book of Acts. The signs of the kingdom (healing of the sick, forgiveness of sinners, integration of the excluded, etc.), which characterize the beginning of Jesus' public mission in Galilee, are found after Pentecost, in the daily life of the nascent community, and are immediately recognized as signs of Resurrected, present in their midst. Easter, in fact, did not weaken the communion between Jesus and his people, but rather made it stable, definitive and permanent. Therefore, the whole mission of the early Church - the preaching of the Word, the ministry of charity, the celebration of baptism - is accomplished. In the name of Jesus. The disciples, the disciples, around the apostles & icircn the new community, & icircsi live the existence according to Jesus Christ, & icircntr an existential communion with his Spirit, living & icircn El and thus becoming with his own life signs of Jesus Christ. The form of evangelization is therefore the testimony of the ecclesial community, that is, a renewed life that expresses the dominant rule of Jesus over man [2].

Such a confession does not concern only some Christians, but is a mission entrusted to the whole people of God: & rdquo & Icircn by virtue of the Baptism received, each member of God's people became a missionary disciple (cf. Mt 28:19). Every baptized person, whatever his function in the Church and the degree of instruction of his faith, is an active subject of evangelization and it would be inappropriate to think of a scheme of evangelization preached by qualified actors, in which the rest of the faithful people would be the sole recipients of their actions. The new evangelization must involve a new involvement of each of the baptized. This conviction turns into an appeal to every Christian, so that no one will give up his or her own commitment to evangelism, since if one has truly experienced the love of God that inspires me, he does not need much time. preparing to go and tell him, he can't wait to be taught countless lessons or long trainings. Every Christian is a missionary insofar as he has become acquainted with the love of God in Christ Jesus. If we are not convinced, let us look at the first disciples who, immediately after knowing the gaze of Jesus, were going to proclaim him full of joy: "I am the Messiah" (Jn 1:41). The Samaritan woman, as soon as she finished her dialogue with Jesus, became a missionary, and many Samaritans believed in Jesus because of the woman's word (Jn 4:39). And St. Paul, starting from his relationship with Jesus Christ, immediately preached that Jesus is the Son of God (Acts 9:20). And what exactly do we expect & rdquo [3]?

In this statement, we find not only a simple moral appeal of responsible individual confession, but a clear and provocative ecclesial vision, which derives sequentially from the renewal of the theology of revelation: All those baptized, from the first to the last, act forcibly. The Spirit who urges evangelism. God's people are holy because of this anointing which makes it infallible. This means that when he believes, he does not make mistakes, even if he does not find words to express his faith. The Spirit leads to truth and leads to salvation. As part of his mystery of love for mankind, God endows all believers with an instinct of faith & ndash that sensus fidei & ndash which & icirci helps to discern what really comes from God. The presence of the Spirit gives Christians a certain familiarity with divine realities and a wisdom that allows them to perceive them intuitively, although they do not have the proper tools to express them accurately.

One of the happiest expressions related to this mission of confession is given to us by the Exhortation Christifideles laici: & rdquo The living workers are all members of God's people: priests, monks and nuns, lay believers, all, & icircn at the same time object and subject of the communion of the Church and of participation in its mission of salvation. Each and every one of us works in a single and common living of the Lord with different and complementary charisms and ministries. [. Thus, the state of secular life has a secular character, its specificity, and it performs an ecclesial service through the testimony and warning, in its own way, of priests, monks and nuns about the significance that earthly and temporal realities have in the plan of God. In its turn, the ministerial priesthood represents the permanent guarantee of the sacramental presence of Christ the Redeemer, in different times and places. The state of monasticism testifies to the eschatological character of the Church, that is, to its tension towards the kingdom of God, which is foreshadowed and in some way anticipated and foretold by the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience.

Therefore, the determining element for the effective success of an evangelization must not necessarily be sought in terms of the specific competencies of an ecclesial structure, but especially in the capacity of believers to really update their identity as God's people, expressing with their lives the novelty. The mystery that lives in them. This is what Pope John Paul II forcefully reminded when, drawing on the lines to be followed at the beginning of the third millennium, he said: 6].

This is what Pope Benedict XVI also says, saying that the Church does not grow by proselytism but grows more by attraction [7], so the proclamation of Christ is in every age the permanent principle of the reformation of the Church: in capita et in membris.

Evangelism and ecclesial reform

If in its deep mystery of the people the communion of the Holy Trinity, the Church is essentially the space of God's holiness, the concrete ways of its life and the individual behaviors of its members are subjects of shortcomings, contradictions, sins. That is why the Church is in every age semper reformanda, and the engine of such reform is the proclamation of Jesus Christ. It is not possible to be an evangelist without first being evangelized by the power of God's life-changing Word.

Pope Francis wanted to intentionally link evangelism with ecclesial reform : & rdquo I do not ignore the fact that today the documents do not arouse the same interest as & icircn other eras and are quickly forgotten. However, I emphasize that what I intend to express here has programmatic significance and important consequences. I hope that all communities will do so in such a way as to translate into action the means necessary to move forward on the path of pastoral and missionary conversion, which cannot leave things as they are. Now we do not need a "simple administration". Let us constitute ourselves in all the regions of the earth in a permanent mission mission & rdquo [8]. The proposal to change our mentality: & rdquo I dream of a missionary option capable of transforming everything, because customs, styles, programs, language and any ecclesial structure become an appropriate channel for evangelizing the world today, more than for self-defense. The reform of the structures, which is required by pastoral conversion, can only be understood in this sense: to make them all the more missionary, so that the ordinary pastorate in all its actions may be more expansive and open, so that it may be i put the pastoral workers & icircn in a constant attitude of & bdquoieșire & shy & icircn world & rdquo and thus to favor the positive response of all to whom Jesus offers his friendship. As John Paul II told the bishops of Oceania, "every renewal of the Church must have its mission as its goal in order not to fall prey to a kind of ecclesial interiorization," [9] it is a permanent challenge to God's people.

Such a change of mentality must concern all the components of the Church: the parishes, which must be verified not to be mere structures, the other ecclesial institutions present in the territory, called to grow in the communion of charisms, the private churches, required to show a new spirit, the Petrine ministry, which must not generate excessive centralization, which according to Pope Francis, does not help the missionary dynamics [10].

Evangelism is the driving force of the life of the Church and of all its structures, regardless of level, which carries it beyond being a simple administrator of the existing ones, towards an apostolic exit [11].

In this new context of missionary revitalization of ecclesial communities, attention is also paid to its various components that constitute it and to the various pastoral changes that concern it. One of the priorities of Pope Francis' pontificate is to reconsider the role of the family for the family, for which two Synods were dedicated, 2014 and 2015, finalized with the post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Amoris Laetitiae, of March 19, 2016. In synthetic terms, ecclesial reform is needed to define marriage as a true place of missionary proclamation, making ecclesial structures more permeable to the family experience, so that it is presented as more transparent as God's people. , which lives in icircn territory. It is, therefore, a double movement & ndash the ecclesial community versus family and family versus community: & rdquo The Church is a family of families, constantly enriched by the life of all the family Churches. Therefore, by virtue of the sacrament of Marriage, every family clearly becomes a good for the Church. From this perspective, it will certainly be a precious gift for the present of the Church to consider the reciprocity between the family and the Church: the Church is a good for the family, the family is a good for the Church. Keeping the Lord's sacramental gift involves not only every family, but the Christian community itself. [12]

In order for a reform to be carried out for the benefit of families, it is necessary for it to be carried out together with the families, involving their sensibilities, taking into account their exigencies, getting used to their language. It is necessary to recover the missionary dimension of a domestic Christianity: & rdquo And, on the other hand, even these family ties, & icircn within the experience of faith and love of God, are transformed, are & bdquoumpled & rdquo they & icircnsele, to create a wider fatherhood and motherhood, and to receive as brothers and sisters and those who are on the margins of any bond. [. The wisdom of the affections that are not bought and not sold is the best dowry of the family genius. It is in the family that we learn to grow in that atmosphere of wisdom and affection. Their grammar is learned there, otherwise it is very difficult to learn it. And this is exactly the language through which God makes himself understood by all. The invitation to place family ties in the context of obedience to the faith and the covenant with the Lord does not mortify them, on the contrary, it protects them, unleashes them from selfishness, protects them from degradation, saves them for life that does not die. The circulation of a family style in human relations is a blessing to the peoples: it restores hope to the earth.

When family affections are converted to the testimony of the gospel, they become capable of unimaginable things, which make us touch with the works of God, those works which God has done in history, as those which Jesus has done for women, for men. , the children he & icircnt & acirclnit & rdquo [13].

The pastoral reform of the Church concerns, in many ways, especially those who work in evangelization with a specific ministry and special charisms, which is why this subject involves a separate debate [14], and the Synod of Youth has proved this through the many debates and proposals, which are part of the Apostolic Exhortation dedicated to young people Christus vivit : & rdquo Christ lives. He is our hope and the most beautiful youth in this world. Everything he touches becomes t & acircnăr, becomes new, fills with life. Therefore, the first words I want to address to every Christian are: He lives and wants you alive [15]! This exhortation emphasizes the same way of operating evangelism as a people of God: & rdquo I write with affection to all young Christians this apostolic exhortation, that is, a letter that recalls some of the beliefs of our faith and, at the same time, encourages the growth and sanctification of holiness. employment for one's own vocation. However, since it is a milestone in a synodal path, I am addressing at the same time the whole people of God, the pastors and the faithful, because the reflection on young people and young people challenges and stimulates us all. Therefore, in some paragraphs I will speak directly to young people and in others I will propose more general approaches for discerning the ecclesial accent.

Evangelization processes

The ecclesial transformation required by a renewed evangelistic movement can only be achieved through a gradual process that requires time, patience, and perseverance. It is not a question of a simple application of operative recipes, or of registering different organizational structures, but of promoting that pastoral discernment that generates a dynamic of openness and involvement. The evangelizing perspective within ecclesial communities is to: & rdquo focus more on initiating processes than on mastering spaces & rdquo, reminding us that: & rdquo time is superior to space & rdquo [17]. & rdquo This criterion is also very suitable for evangelism, which requires taking into account the big picture, openness to the right processes and concern for long-term planning. The Lord Himself, in His earthly life, has often made it clear to His disciples that there are things that they still cannot understand and that it is necessary to wait for the Holy Spirit (cf. In the 16,12-13). The parable of the wheat and the tares (cf. Mt. 13: 24-30) describes an important aspect of evangelism, which is to show that the enemy can occupy the space of the kingdom and cause weed damage, but he is ultimately defeated by the goodness of the grace that manifests itself over time. 18].

Of the various processes involved in evangelism, the most challenging is of course the continual connection of ecclesial communion. Pope Francis appeals in this sense to the image of synodality, ie that way of going together that knows how to harmonize the differences, integrating them in a multifaceted vision with different perspectives, valuing the contribution of each one. The fraternal relationship between the disciples is always a primary reference and decisive element for the Christian mission and cannot be simply supplemented by the generosity of involvement. Mutual love & icircntre Christians, is the distinctive seal of belonging to the Lord [19]: & rdquo By this they will all recognize that you are my disciples: if you have love for one another & rdquo [20].

At the center of evangelistic action is the confession of a community that challenges the consciences with its way of being and is not just a simple pastoral project around which more or less homogeneous forces can gather [21].

It is not a question of dreaming of a perfect Christian community, nor of describing in the abstract an image of what the Church should be like; by the Lord.

The document regarding The New Evangelization, tells us that the problem of the infertility of today's evangelization, of the catechesis & icircn of modern times, is an ecclesiological problem, which concerns the ability or not of the Church to configure itself as a real community, as a true fraternity, as a body not as a machine or & icircntreprendere [22].

A true communion around the Body of the Lord is, therefore, the first moment and the first essential condition of the mission: where there is no communion, there is no evangelization [23].

A second important process, which we need to remember with determination and patience, concerns the requirement to overcome the rift between content and methods of evangelism. This means moving beyond the idea that the issue of evangelism is essentially related to language and communication, we know. as we have to announce, but we don't know How let's say it. The problem, indeed, is discerning what the gospel requires in a particular cultural context. The gospel, in fact, is not limited to providing a message for the Christian community, it generates a specific image of reality, arousing various relationships between confessors, provoking surprising reactions from the powers of this world [24].

A third process that we must follow concerns the intrinsic orientation of the Christian mission to explicit its own foundation. & rdquo So let your light shine & icircn before men, & icircnc & acirct let them see your good deeds and glorify your Father in heaven! & rdquo [25] it satisfies the immediate needs, but understands with its dedication, to reach a much deeper benefit, which is to help to please the Lord. It is what can be clearly seen in a path of Christian initiation, the true matrix of any pastoral action of the Church, the gradual transition of the catechumen from his initial attitude of sympathy, to a recognition of the theological reasons that found this life [26].

The statement of Pope Paul VI is also current: "Contemporary man listens to confessors better than masters, or if he listens to masters he does so because they are confessors." [27] it will reveal in time helpless, if it is not enlightened, justified, what Peter called & rdquoa give reason to his own hope, - explained by a clear and unequivocal proclamation of the Dome of Jesus. The Good News, proclaimed by the confession of life, will therefore have to be announced sooner or later by the word of life. There is no true evangelism if the name, life, promises, & Kingdom, mystery of Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God, are not proclaimed. [28]

The task and mission of the Church is to show people their ultimate goal, by participating in the life of the Father of Jesus & icircn Spirit, not as an alternative to other interests, but as the only happy destiny and the only possibility of salvation. Even the proposal of a courageous life that follows the call of Christ constitutes the evangelizing mission of the Church: to be the salt of the earth, the light of the world [29].

Prof. Flavius ​​Leonard FLOREA

Head of the Pastoral Office for the Pastoral Care of Young People and Children in the Archdiocese of Alba Iulia and Făgăraș

[1] Giuseppe Colombo, Sacramental theology, editura Glossa, Milano 1997, pp. 126.

7.6 magnitude earthquake in the Caribbean Sea, felt in Honduras, Mexico and Belize. TSUNAMI alert

A magnitude 7.6 earthquake shook the Caribbean Sea on the coast of Honduras on Tuesday night, the US Institute of Geophysics (USGS) said. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a 1,000-kilometer tsunami alert around the epicenter of the quake.

The quake was felt strongly in Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, about 519 km, but also in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. So far, no casualties or significant property damage have been reported.

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has issued alerts for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and warned that the waves could reach more than a meter in height.

The quake occurred on Wednesday at 02.51 GMT (04.51, Romanian time) at a depth of ten kilometers. Its epicenter was located 44 kilometers from Great Swan Island.

Caribbean Cake - Recipes

ACANTHUS IT., TO SING, fam. Acanthaceae. Genus native to Africa, Asia, southern Europe, over 20 species, perennial, herbaceous or woody. Sessile, lilac, white or pink flowers appear under the armpit of a bract, in a very beautiful spike. Stems straight, leaves large, lobed, irregularly toothed at the edges.

ANDRACHNE IT., ANDRAHNE, fam. Euphorbiaceae. Genus native to North America, Asia, southern Europe and Africa, 19 species, small bushes with toothless leaves. Flowers small, yellow-green, with petals shorter than the calyx. It blooms in summer.

ANTIRRHINUM IT., LION'S MOUTH, fam. Scrophulariaceae. Genus native to North Africa and America, in southern Europe, about 42 species, annual, biennial or perennial, depending on the time of sowing and climatic conditions. Flowers (bilabiate corolla with dilated base, 4 stamens, 2 long, 2 short) with a large variation of colors, from pure white to dark purple, arranged terminally on stems, in spikes or racemes. Fruit, capsule.

Dianthus barbatus L., «Garden carnations». A species native to southern Europe, a biennial species, it can also be perennial if we protect it from frost in winter. blooms in summer. Flowers small, numerous (corolla with 5 petals well extended and finely toothed at the edges), single or double, with varied color, purple, white, pink, red, purple, dotted, feathered, streaked, with lighter circular spots at the base , in corymbs. Each bouquet is based, in June-July, around the calyx, green bracts, long, linear-lanceolate, sharp and curved. Stem bushy, branched, glabrous, about 40 cm high. Leaves large, green, lanceolate, recurved, those at the base with petiole.

DICTAMNUS IT., OPINION, fam. Rutaceae. Genus with only one species: Dictamnus albus L., «Ash», syn. D. flaxinella Pers.). Originally from southern Europe, northern China, perennial plant. blooms in summer. Flowers (petals 2-3 cm long, deciduous calyx, pubescent stamens at the base) large, reddish-white, with red-purple veins, arranged in terminal racemes, glandular-viscous. The fruit, a capsule with a few glossy black seeds. Peduncles, calyx and capsules with black-reddish glands. Leaves green, smooth, alternate, imparipenate with lanceolate or ovate leaflets, serulate. Herbaceous plant, glandular, aromatic, with a subfruitful base, 0.60-0.90 m high. Rhizome almost woody, white, aromatic. Stem, branches and inflorescence erect, covered with glandular hairs.

ECHEVERIA DC., EȘEVERIA, fam. Crassulaceae. Genus native to southern Europe, Africa, Asia, America (Texas, California), Mexico, Peru, about 148 species, annual or perennial, herbaceous, semi-woody, with stems about 50-60 cm high. Leaves small, thick, juicy, green-pale-blue with a metallic appearance, arranged in rosettes. Most bloom in winter, forming clusters with small, red, orange or yellow flowers. Floral stem 20-30 cm high, reddish.

ELAEAGNUS IT., RACKET, fam. Elaeagnaceae. Genus native to North America, Asia, southern Europe, about 38 species, trees and shrubs, with thorns on vines and branches. The entire plants, including the leaves (especially on the underside), are covered with small, stellate, silver scales. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, lanceolate, edges. whole. Flowers fragrant, hermaphroditic or polygamous, with bell-shaped perigon, 4 rarely 5 leaflets and 4 stamens glued with perigon. Fruit, fleshy drupe, gray.

ERYSIMUM IT., WILD MIXANDERS, fam, Cruciferae. Genus native to Asia, North America, southern Europe, about 82 species, herbaceous, annual, biennial, perennial with gray hairs, rarely gray-felted. Stem erect. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, without stamens, toothed, covered with trifid hairs, the upper ones sessile, the lower ones short-petiolate. Bloom May-September. Flowers yellow-orange, fragrant, hermaphroditic (4 sepals, 4 long-ungulate petals, 6 stamens with nectar glands at the base, a simple style, about 3 mm long, whole or bilobate stigma), arranged in broad or elongated racemes. Fruit, long-petiolate, quadrangular siliceous.

GNAPHALIUM IT., GNAFALIUM, SIMINOC, fam. Compositae. Genus native to southern Europe, about 148 species, perennial. Leaves silvery white, hairy. Plant 40-50 cm tall. Flowers sessile on a common, convex receptacle, gathered in calatidii, surrounded by an envelope with woolly outer leaflets and the inner ones glabrous, white, dark brown, pink, light yellow. Radial flowers arranged in several series.

GYPSOPHILA IT., IPCĂRIGE, THE BRIDE'S FLOWER, fam. Caryophyllaceae. Genus native to southern Europe, Asia and Australia, especially in the Mediterranean regions, 50-90 species, herbaceous, annual or perennial semi-shrubs.gray-green. Leaves simple, entire, flat, very rarely aciform. Flowers very small, numerous (calyx small, round or campanulate, at most 5 mm long, with 5 teeth or notches, between white-membranous ribs), silver-gray, in loose panicles, at the tip of thin stems, rarely single. Fruit, round or ovate capsule, slightly kidney-shaped seeds.

HEDERA IT., IVY, fam. Araliaceae. Genus native to southern Europe, northern Africa and Asia, includes 7 species, hanging shrubs. The stem is attached to trees or other supporting objects with suction cups on the aerial roots. In the absence of supports, it becomes creepy. Leaves simple, leathery, persistent, glabrous, glossy, digitate-ribbed, green, - the upper part darker and with accentuated veins, the lower one more open and less accentuated veinage -, with the whole edges, ovate - on the flowering vines - and toothed or lobed - the vegetative laminae, most often shorter than the petiole. White or yellow flowers, arranged in umbels. Fruit, black berry, about 5 mm in diameter.

IBERIS IT., LILICELE, LIMBUSO, fam. Cruciferae. Genus native to southern Europe and Asia Minor, up to 40 species of small size, compact shrubs, glabrous, perennial, herbaceous, some annual or semi-woody. Flowers (4 sepals, 4 petals, 2 small, 2 large, 6 stamens of which 2 shorter with mectar glands at the base) hermaphroditic, numerous aetino- norphs, small, white to purple, arranged in racemes. Fruit, silica winged I sharp lobes. Leaves without stipules.

ILEX IT., ILEX, LAUR, fam. Aquifoliaceae. Genus native to western and southern Europe, northern Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean, up to 310 species, shrubs or small trees, always green or only in summer. Leaves simple, alternate, glabrous, leathery, glossy, with entire or toothed edges, often with spiny, petiolate teeth. Flowers, single or in bouquets, type 5, with united petals. Fruit, usually baciform drupe.

Jurin Cass., JURINEA, fam. Compositae. Cen originating from central and southern Europe, northwestern Africa and central Asia, up to 110 species, herbaceous or semi-shrubs.Flowers (ovate or round calyx, corolla with 5 deep notches) or more in one place, with the leaflets of the lanceolate or linear involucre with a pointed tip, without spines, hermaphroditic, red arranged in solitary calyxes. Leaves penate-fidate, without spines.

Marigold IT., MARIGOLD, fam. Compositae. Genus of herbaceous plants, annual and perennial, originating in southern Europe, northern Africa, about 25 species, about 50 cm tall. Stem with a particular smell, fragile, erect, branched. Leaves alternate, oblong to lanceolate, sessile, with ciliated edges. Flowers (white, yellow, red-orange) in large, terminal heads, in which the disc flowers, male, are sterile, the radial ones, fertile. Fruit, long, prickly achene.

chestnuts Mill., CHESTNUT, fam. Fagaceae. Genus native to southern Europe and North America, Asia, northern Africa (about 12-18, species), heat-loving trees. Compact, thick crown, gray bark. Leaves large, alternate, deciduous, broad-lanceolate, sharp-toothed, glabrous or hairy on the underside. Unisexual-monoecious flowers, sessile, accompanied by female bracts, about 3, in a thorny envelope at the base of male lovers, each flower being composed of 6 sepals and an ovary with 6 male lodges, consisting of a calyx with 6 divisions and about 20 stamens, grouped in long, cylindrical, interrupted and erect arms. The fruits, achenes, are solitary or 2-3 enclosed in an envelope with the surface covered by numerous long, prickly thorns and 1-2 seeds.

CATANANCHE IT., CATANANHE, fam. Compositae. Genus native to southern Europe 4-5 species, annual or perennial grasses, about 40-90 cm tall, with linear leaves, slightly toothed or non-toothed, at the base of the stem, blooms in summer. Flowers large, blue-violet, white, semi-double, arranged in flat heads, sepals arranged in several rows, with a broad appendage, parchment, the outer ones shorter. Fruit elongated, with about 10 edges, with or without rough hairs, about 7 scales, which form the doll.

CERCIS IT., CERCIS, fam. Leguminosae. Genus native to southern Europe, eastern Asia and North America, 5-7 species, trees and shrubs, 6-12 m tall. Leaves simple, entire or weak-bilobate, palmately-ribbed, sub-round-reniform, scaly or herbaceous stipules. Pink flowers, hermaphroditic, a few in sessile raceme (appear before or with the leaves), the calyx field canceled, 10 stamens free. Fruit, a dehiscent pod (appears in autumn), about 12 cm long (Pl. 18, fig. 105).

CHAMAEROPS IT., CAMEROPS, fam. Palmae. Genus native to southern Europe and northern Africa, about 2 species, palm trees with 1-7 m tall stems. Long, petiolate leaves, divided into a large number of fan-shaped bands. At first, the growth is in the form of a loose bush, then, with age, it forms quite slowly, the stem. Dioecious flowers

COTINUS Mill., DEAR, fam. Anaecirdiaceae. Genus native to North America, southern Europe and central Asia.

CYCLAMEN IT., CYCLAMEN, fam. Primulaceae. Genus native to southern Europe and Asia, about 16 species (to which are added many subspecies with different shapes, colors and degrees of precocity), herbaceous, perennial, with fleshy, hard tubers. Leaves long-petiolate, kidney-shaped, mottled. Flowers (reflective corolla lacini, acute before the tube, and corolla lamina and calyx 5-fidate) white, pink, purple, bright red, red, etc. Greenhouse species bloom in October-March, and the others in spring and summer.

LABURNUM Griseb., YELLOW ACC, fam. Leguminosae. Genus native to southern Europe, 3 species, fine-hairy-sticky trees or shrubs. Yellow flowers arranged in long, pendulous racemes. Leaves trifoliate, provided with stipules, leaflets up to 1 cm long. Fruit, pods

LAURUS IT., BAY, fam. Lauraceae. Genus native to southern Europe, 2 species ,. trees and shrubs with evergreen, leathery, fragrant leaves. Dioecious flowers in short racemes, in the axis of the leaves (perigon composed of 4 leaflets, 12 stamens, the females with 4 staminoids).

LEGOUSIA Dur., LEGOUSIA, fam. Campanulaceae. Original genre, from. North America, southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, 12 species, herbaceous, erect or on the ground, annual or perennial. Flowers (bell-shaped or rotated corolla, ordinary, with 5 lacinae, calyx 5 times segmented, anthers free, narrow stamens, ovary with 3 lodges, style as long as the corolla), white, red, blue, violet, in leaf axis, in umbel , short or even unpunculated. Leaves alternate, dentate or non-toothed, Fruit, capsule linear-wedge, angular.

LEONTICE IT., LEONTICE, fam. Berberidaceae. Genus native to southern Europe, northern Africa, Asia, 12 species, bulbous rhizomes. Yellow flowers, in clusters or umbels. Leaves feathery or notched. The fruit, a parchment capsule with 2-8 seeds.

LITTORELLA Bergius., LITORELA, fam. Plantaginaceae. Genus native to central and northern Europe, southern America, 2 species, small swamp plants and water. Unisexual flowers arranged monoeciously (the long-peduncled males, singular, the females, 2-4 at the base of the male peduncle). Fruit, unisperm capsule.

PALIURUS Mill., PALIUR, fam. Rhamnaceae. Genus native to southern Europe, western Asia, China, Korea, Japan, about 9 species, shrubs or thorny trees. Leaves simple, alternate, dentate or non-toothed, cordiform to ovate, trinervous, deciduous, petiolate, smooth with 2 vigorous spines, one straight and the other curved. Flowers yellowish, hermaphroditic, small, complete, type 5, in umbel-shaped, axillary buds. Drupaceous fruit.

PHILADELPHUS IT., FALSE JASOMY, FILADELFUS, fam. Saxifragaceae. Genus native from southern Europe to the Caucasus, Asia, America, about 45 species, exotic shrubs, up to 3 m tall forming a dense bush. Leaves opposite, entire, denticulate, distant-serrate or spaced at the edge, petiole short. Flowers large, about 5 cm in diameter, fragrant, white, rarely yellow or reddish at the base, hermaphroditic (4 sepals, 4 subround petals, numerous stamens - 20-40 - lower ovary), solitary or in dense or sparse raceme, terminal or in leaf axis. Fruit, capsule with 4 valves and many small seeds.

RICINUS IT., RICIN, STRAWBERRY, fam. Euphorbiaceae. Genus that has only one species: Ricinus communis L. Species native to Africa and southern Europe. Herbaceous or arborescent plant with fast growth, reddish or bluish stem, glabrous, often floury, fistulous, branched, up to 3 m high, and in its places of origin, 12 m. Large leaves, palmately lobed, toothed lobes, alternate, long-petiolate, sharp, glossy. Flowers quite large, monoecious (parchment calyx with 3-5 lacins, stamens with filaments several times branched), arranged in racemes, at the top of the branches, at the base the male ones, yellowish, the others at the top, reddish. blooms in summer. Fruit, capsule. It has many varieties and varieties that differ from each other in height, the color of the stem or leaves, inflorescence, leaves (thorny, glabrous), etc.

SANTOLINA IT., SANTOLINA, fam. Compositae. Genus native to southern Europe, about 70 species, aromatic and decorative through leaves and flowers grow in the form of small bushes. Hermaphroditic, tubular flowers (nested involved leaflets), sessile, on a common receptacle, arranged in solitary, small, long-peduncled calyxes. Silver leaves, golden, with a pleasant smell. Fruit, achene.

Milk thistle Adans., SILIBUM, ARMURARIU, fam. Compositae. Genus native to North Africa, southern Europe, Asia, 2 species, herbaceous, erect, annual and biennial, glabrous. Leaves radicular, alternate, lobed or notched-pinnate, thorny. Flowers sessile, cylindrical, purple, all fertile, with 5 overgrown petals, overgrown stamens and arranged in globular, solitary, terminal, pendulous heads, surrounded by an envelope whose leaflets have a spiny tip. Fruits, angular achenes, glabrous.

SPIRAEA IT., SPIREA, fam. Rosaceae. Genus native to southern Europe, North Asia, North and West America, about 85 species, shrubs in the form of shrubs, straight or arched-pendulous stems, of different sizes, up to 2 m. Leaves alternate, deciduous, simple, usually evenings, without stipules, whole or slightly lobed. It blooms from spring to autumn. Hermaphroditic flowers, small, white, pink or red (5 free petals, longer than the 5 free sepals, numerous stamens at the base with a ring, 5 distinct pistils), arranged in umbel-shaped racemes, corymbs, panicles. Fruit with 5 dehiscent follicles, approx. 15 seeds.

Tolpis barbata (L.) Gaertn (syn. Crepis barbata IT.). Species native to southern Europe and northern Africa. It blooms in summer and autumn. Flowers arranged in heads (the radial ones yellow-sulfide, those of the disc brown, velvety, sometimes all yellow, rarely white), surrounded by an envelope with linear inner leaflets, the outer ones in the form of rough hairs. Puppet composed of very small scales and 2-3 hairs. Leaves radical, oblong-spatulate, cauline oblong-lanceolate, toothed, and those at the top linear and almost entire. Annual plant, up to 1 m tall, pubescent, branched stem.

Trachelium caeruleum L. Species native to southern Europe. It blooms in summer and autumn. Flowers in large numbers, small, blue-purple, slightly fragrant (ovate-lanceolate petals with blunt tip, distant, cylindrical sepals, without appendage, exert style), in dense corymb, terminal. Leaves ovate to elliptical, with sharp tips, double-serrate, 7-8 cm long, short-petiolate, glabrous. Herbaceous plant, about 1 m tall, with an erect stem, richly branched towards the top, glabrous, densely leafy, reddish.

Dried bay leaf (1) used in food as a spice or in the preparation of recipes in folk medicine. 3 (Is) Butter (or pomade) of

little) Tulichina (Daphne mezereum). 11 (Bot reg ic)

-rose Leandru (Nerium oleander). 12 (Bot reg îc)

-little Popilnic (Asarum europaem). 13 (Bot reg ic)

-wild Willow (Elaeagnus angustifolia).

muscle Fatigue accompanied by muscle pain, which occurs as a result of special physical exertion. 3 (Is)

yellow Infectious-contagious disease widespread in Africa and South America by dipterans. 4 (Is)

pappatacci (or for three days) Infectious epidermal, viral disease, spread in southern Europe by the insect Phlebotomus pappatasii. 5 (Is)

-of-the garden) Small shrub with a semi-woody, fragrant stem, with lanceolate leaves, blue, purple, rarely white flowers, native to southern Europe, cultivated as an ornamental plant and (for its leaves) medicinal Si: mourning, sage (Salvia officinalis). 2 (Bot reg chic

-field or fields, sage,

-wild) Jale (Salvia pratensis). 3 (Chic

-glue Honestly (Glutinous sage). 7 (Bot rar ic)

-white Herbaceous honey plant of the Malvaceae family, with straight stem, lobed leaves, rose flowers And: (reg) ghilie, mallow, hill-lipstick (Thuringian Lavatera).

ypresi a n, -ă s.n., adj. (geol.) 1 s.n. Upper floor of the Paleocene in central and southern Europe. 2 adj. Which belongs to the ypresian, specific to the ypresian which refers to this period. 3 s.n. Series of geological layers from the Ypresian. • sil. -si-an. pl. -ieni, -iene. / & ltfr. ypresien cf. nm. pr. Ypres, city ​​in Belgium.

that each of the languages ​​belonging to the family of languages ​​spoken by some peoples in Asia and Southeast Europe. 2) (about peoples or populations) Who speaks a language of this family./<germ. Türkisch

ce = family of Altaic languages ​​(Turkish, Tatar) spoken from south-eastern Europe to Siberia and China. (& lt Turkish + -ic)

PERTILE, Aureliano (1885-1952), Italian tenor. Remarkable control of the emission, suppleness of the nuance, incisive timbre, expressive force, musical rigor. Lyrical-dramatic tenor repertoire. Career in South America and Europe (Scala in Milan). Absolute premiere of works ("Nero" by Boito). Numerous recordings (1923-1943 complete with "Aida", "Trubadurul", "Carmen").

COVER IT., CHIPAROȘI, fam. Cupressaceae. Genus native to southeastern Europe, North America and Mexico, southeastern China, about 15 species of trees and shrubs with a pyramidal crown, very dense, narrow, dark green, circular vines, or in 4 edges. Leaves scaly, acicular, persistent, homogeneous, elliptical, cover all branches. Flowers small, unisexual-monoecious. Cones with a diameter of about 3 cm, brown-gray, woody, spherical or ovoid, angular scales, shield-shaped with a small thorn. Red-dark brown seeds.

Cristiana Common first names in our time, Christian and Christian reproduce the name pers. lat. Christiánus, Christiána, originally adjectives derived from Christus, by which the followers of the new religion were appointed. name Christ (from the vb. chriein "To anoint") is of Greek origin and appears in Septuagint as a translation of the term Hebrew. mashi’ha "Anointed", also known in Romanian as Messiah. Designated by Jesus said Messiah, In Greek, the exact value of the elements of this expression being unknown, the Messiah, translated through Christ, was considered the second proper name of Jesus and used as such. Form Christus, taken over by the Romans, will be the basis for its derivation christianus (parallel gr. christianos, borrowed from the Slavic Roma. Christian continues the Latin form), a word used for the first time probably around 43 AD, in Antioch and attested only three times in the texts N.T. In the Latin inscriptions from the 15th century. 3 - 4, christianus it was a common word that either replaced the person's name or accompanied it. Secret at first, because of religious persecution, Christian it appears with distinctive personal name value later, when Christianity became the official religion, during the time of Constantine the Great, it had already crystallized a rich inventory of names. Finally himself Christ begins to be used as a common personal name, very rarely in Western Europe (but here appears Jesus, common in Spain, in the form Jesús) but quite frequently in south-eastern Europe (e.g. bg. Christ). In Romanian, Christian is an old first name, the forms under which it appears in the first documents may probably be of Latin origin, but modified under the Slavic influence as regards the treatment of the consonant -R-.The multitude of derivatives, the high frequency and the presence in toponymy are evidences of the antiquity and spread of the name on our territory. Here are some forms that Romanians used in the past for the current ones Cristiana and Cristiana (hypoc. frequently crystal), of cultured origin: cirstian (attestation in 1389 until 1500, in the documents of Wallachia appear nine persons with this name, from different social backgrounds), Cîrstiana (in an act of 1500) Cărstea, Crăstea, Cîrstea, Crîstea they are sometimes only graphic forms of it crystal (attested from 1415 and carried in documents of up to 1500 by 11 people) Christ, Hristan - Slavic forms of Greek origin Cristache, Cristel, Cîrstici, Cârstilă, Cîrstocea, Rist, Rist, Ristel, Rist and so on L Engl. Christiane, fr. Christian, Chrétien, Christiane, Christiane, it. Cristiana, Cristiana, magh. Krisztian, Keresztely, bg., rus., scr. Hristian, Hristiana and so on ☐ The poet Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin, the Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen, the Norwegian composer Christian Sinding and so on

Innocent First name little used in our country, Innocent reproduces in a cult way the name pers. lat. Innocent, attested in the Latin sources of the Christian era. The meaning of the name is clear even today for speakers of Romance languages ​​created on the basis of adj. lat. innocens, innocentis (Neologisms belong to the same family innocent, innocence), a derivative of the verb Nocera "To harm" (hence harmful, harmfulness), the personal name has the meaning "innocent, pure, candid" (for the Christian meaning of the name it is interesting to remember that the church celebrates the saints Innocent, martyrs - children killed by King Herod, in Bethlehem). Entered the sacred onomasticon and become a calendar, Innocentius it spreads in Europe, being more frequent in the west the name is quite rare in south-eastern Europe (here the form gr. Innocents). Innocent it is a rarity in the past centuries for Romanians (in the Moldavian documents from the time of Stephen the Great it appears only once, as the name of a monk) as well as Innocent, fem. innocent (The appearance of these forms in Transylvania can also be linked to the Latin-Catholic influence). ☐ It. Innocent, sp. Innocent, germ. Innocent, magh. Innocent, In what, Innocence, bg., rus. Innocent(and), ser. Innocent, Innocent and so on ☐ In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the name was carried by a large number of popes. Among them we mention Innocent III (1198 - 1216), the initiator of the Fourth Crusade (after which the Eastern Latin Empire was founded by the conquest of Byzantium, 1204-1261) and the initiator of the Inquisition. scribe Innocent Little Clain.Innocent X, famous painting by Yelásquez.

Sidonia Modern female first name borrowed by cult from Western onomastics, Sidonia it is interpreted differently by specialists. A first hypothesis sees in this name a creation of Christian onomastics based on subst. gr. sidón "Cloth, sheet," in remembrance of the cloth in which Jesus was wrapped for burial. The etymology seems unconvincing for many reasons that we do not discuss, apart from the one regarding the circulation of the name according to the proposed etymology the personal name should be a Greek creation as explained then the total absence of the name from south-eastern Europe (Greeks, Slavs, Romanians, etc.). Sidonia it is certainly created in western Europe, and the only acceptable basis is the name pers. Sidonius, attested in the Greek and Latin sources of the first centuries of our era. Form gr. Sidonians appears in the works of the atheist writer and philosopher Lucian of Samosata, c. 125 - c. 192 (the name was borne by a sophist from Athens). As the same word was used by the Greeks with adjective value, Sidonius it is originally a nickname that indicates the local origin of the bearer, "from Sidon" (ancient Phoenician fortress, known since the millennium. 2 BC). Among other bearers of the name, it stands out Caius Solius Apollinarius Sidonius, bishop of Averna (today Clermont-Ferrand, France) and writer who lived between c. 431 - 487 the bishop is sanctified, the name Sidonius thus entering the Christian onomasticon and calendar. Although Sidonia does not appear in older sources, it is normally his female correspondent Sidonius (kept in French in the forms Sidain, Sedaine or Saën, - the latter being popular). Certainly in the Renaissance, Sidonia was reintroduced into use as the name of Dido, the heroine Aeneid (but the etymology is the same). ☐ Fr. Sidonie, germ. Sidonie, it. Sidonia, magh. Szidonia and so on ☐ The French writer Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette.

SNOW [nevö], Ginette (1919-1949), French violinist. Wonder-child. Tours in Europe, South America, Canada and the USA Amazing precision, sought-after expression, sensitivity, constant tension between respect for the style of the works and interpretive sincerity. Classical and romantic concert repertoire. He died in a plane crash.

Dianthus carthusianorum L., «Carnations». Perennial. Originally from southern and central Europe, Asia Minor. It blooms in summer and autumn. Flowers (calyx with brown, glabrous scales, the outer ones narrower and slightly shorter than the inner ones) purple, arranged about 6 in chapters. Stem leaves wider than the roots, linear, with vaginas several times longer than the width of the leaf. Herbaceous plant, hairy stem, 15-30 cm tall.

monthly IT., UNTIL THE FLIGHT, fam. Cruciferae. Genus native to southern and central Europe, 2-3 species, herbaceous, perennial or biennial. Flowers (4 sepals, 4 long-ungulate petals, 6 stamens) large, peduncled, purple-violet or white, hermaphroditic, actinomorphic, arranged in racemes. Fruit, silica up to 5 cm long, compressed, flat, elliptical or oblong, transparent-membranous, with the remaining style on top. Leaves often large, cordate.

Cristof Not very common in our current onomastics, Cristofór corresponds to the name pers. Christophorós, Late Greek and specifically Christian formation from Christ (→ Cristiana) and -force "Carrier" (→ Nichifor). Interesting in anecdotal and significant in terms of the "documentary value" of hagiographic legends is the explanation of the name of a martyr Christophoros, who would have carried the child Jesus on his shoulders, which is impossible at least due to the fact that the person in question was martyred during the reign of Emperor Decius, in the middle of the century. 3. Symbol of the new faith (in the sense of "bearer of faith in Christ"), Cristof was common in medieval Europe (in the south of France the name begins to appear in documents from 1080), due to the cult of martyrdom that the church favored since the century. 4. The popularity that the name enjoyed at one time is also closely related to the patronage sphere of the saint which included sailors, raftsmen, pilgrims, etc., generally all those who traveled by land or water. And probably those who chose him were also influenced by these beliefs Cristof as the first name of the famous Genoese navigator Columbus. In our onomastics, the current form of Western origin replaces the older one Hristofór, probably of neo-Greek influence. ☐ Fr. Christophe, germ. Kristof, it. Cristoforo, sp. Cristobal, magh. Kristof, bg., rus. Christopher and so on

ve A family of languages ​​of Indo-European origin, spoken by the Slavs (2) in central and eastern Europe. 11-12 sf, a (Is)

common Slavic language (1) before splitting into languages ​​and dialects. 13-14 sf, a (Is) old

old church, language (old)

complicated The language of the Slavs (2) from the east of the Balkan Peninsula, established as a literary language in the second half of the ninth century Si: (asr) Slavic, Paleo-Slavic language, (nob) Old Slovenian language. 15 sf (Prc îs)

STALIN, (Djugașvili), Iosif Vissarionovici (1879-1953), Soviet politician. Communist. Secretary General of the C.C. to the P.C.U.S. (1922-1953), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1941-1953) chairman of the State Defense Committee and supreme commander of the armed forces of the UR.S.S. (1941-1945). He led by dictatorial methods, eliminating his political opponents (Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, etc.). It introduced the forced collectivization of agriculture, the rapid industrialization of the country and the five-year plans. The initiator of a bloody "purge", during which he decimated the leadership of the Army by eliminating the military elite ("Great Terror", 1936-1938). He entered into a non-aggression pact with Hitler by which the U.R.S.S. and Germany delimited its spheres of interest in Central and Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. In World War II, building on the patriotism of the Russian people and skillfully managing relations with Western allies, he became the main beneficiary of the conflagration, which led to the expansion of his sphere of influence and, implicitly, of the socialist system in the countries. Eastern Europe. After the war, the cult of his personality reached unimaginable heights, accompanied by a new wave of repression in the U.R.S.S. and Eastern European countries.

Peter One of the most common and widespread first names, Peter it is a creation proper to Christian onomastics. As it appears in the Gospel texts, the initial name of the apostle was → Simon (heb. Shimeon) and it is Jesus himself who will decide to change his name: “You are Simon, the son of Lona, you will be called Kefa”. Of Aramaic origin, kepha is a common word meaning "stone, rock, rock" (synonymous with gr. petra). The reason for translating the Aramaic name is quite clear: the author knew very well that Kepha it was a common word and the thing appears even more clearly from the biblical text, basically a motivation for the name change: “you are Peter (gr. Petros, aram. Kepha) and on this stone (gr. petra, aram. kepha), I will build my church ”. So here is the mechanism by which a common word can become a personal name (gr. petros it had not been used as a proper name). It appears in Latin Peter, an adaptation of gr. Petros (lat. petra, become in rom. Stone, is an ancient Greek loan) well attested in the Latin Christian epigraphy, Peter is the basis of Western European forms, where the name became popular in the Middle Ages (in southern France, for example, it is one of the 6 most common baptismal names in the 9th-14th century in Dresden, in the 14th century, Peter was third baptismal name, in frequency, after Johannes and Nikolaus). In Eastern Europe (we refer to the southern or eastern Slavs and the Romanians) the Greek form is continued. As popular as elsewhere, the cult of "St. Peter" explains the frequency of the Romanian name (a statistic made for the last hundred years in a region not too large, places it in sixth place in frequency) but certainly that Christian elements have been grafted onto older pagan traces, preserved to this day, which have greatly favored the popularity of the name. Considered the patron saint of fishermen (Simon-Peter had been a fisherman), the apostle is also the patron saint of wolves, in connection with which old and interesting beliefs and magical practices have been preserved. The "Lent of the Grave" or the day of his birth (actually the death of the apostle, considered by the church as the "heavenly birth") were kept with great care so that the "Beautiful" (or Ieles) would not rob their minds and repent of their bodies, for so that people do not suffer from diseases, famines, stones, etc. The antiquity (documentary attestations start from the 14th century), the high frequency and the spread of the name in all Romanian regions have resulted in the appearance of numerous derivatives and variants, which together with the borrowed forms form a rich onomastic family (a large part of the forms they we will quote are still in use today as a first name, and others can be found as a family name or in toponymy): Peter(it), Petruc(complicated), Petrus, Petrușor, Petrushka, Petruţ(complicated), Truţă, Petran, Petraş, Petraşcu, Petrache, Petrachel, Petros (vocative form then used for the nominative), Petrea, Petric(complicated), Petrican, Petriceico, Petricel, Petrila (hence the toponym Petrila), Petriman, Petrine, Petriș, Petrisor, Four, Patran, Patrasco, Patrascan, Pătrăuș, Pătruţ, pence, Pension, Petia, Petis, Sync (and the popular name of the holiday that could be inherited from Latin) fem. Petra, Petros, Petrina, The square and so on L Engl. Peter, fr. Pierre (with numerous derivatives: Perret, Perrin, Perron, Perrot and Pierrot etc.), germ. Peter and Peter (hypoc. Pit, Pitter, also used in English), it. Pietro (also appears in compounds such as Pietrangeli), Dutch. Peeter, port., sp. Pedro, magh. Peter, Petö, Bottles, bg. Petar, Petros, Petra, rus. Piotr, Petra, scr. Petar, ucr. Peter, arm. Bedri and so on ☐ The name Peter was worn by six lords of Moldavia (Petru I Mușat, 1374-1392, Petru II, Petru Aron, Petru Rareș, Petru Șchiopul, Petru Cazacul) and two lords of Wallachia (Petrul cel Tînăr, Petru Cercel) the Transylvanian Enlightenment Petru Maior, chemist Peter Poni, storyteller Petre Ispirescu among the foreigners we remember Peter I (Peter the Great), tsar (1682 -1721) and emperor of Russia (1721 - 1725), astronomer Pierre Simon Laplace, Pierre Curie, writers Pierre Ronsard, Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Pierre Corneille, Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de Marivaux, Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, composers Piotr Ilici Tchaikovsky, Pietro Mascagni, pictorial Piero della Francesca, both Pieter Brueghel, Peter Paul Rubens and so on ☐ From the literary and musical creation we mention the work Petru Rareș by E. Caudella, the novel Peter I of A.N. Tolstoy, the well-known character of the novel War and peace by Lev Tolstoy, Pierre Bezuhov, the hero of A. von Chamisso's fantasy story, The extraordinary story of Peter Schlemihl and so on

filled Peppers (2) stuffed with minced meat and rice. 4 (Is) Flour of

on (or, rarely over) wound To make a situation even worse. 6 (Pfm îe) To give someone with

on the nose To harden. 7 (Pfm îe) To be as fast as

-de-Caiene Peppers (1), variety Capsicum frutescens. 10 (Bot reg ic)

-Bucharest Goat's horn (Capsicum longum). 11 (Ic)

-Cherry Peppers (1), variety Capsicum cerasiforme. 12 (Ic)

-fatty Peppers (1), variety Capsicum grossum. 13 (Bot reg ic)

-wild Wild basil (Galinsoga parviflora). 14 (Bot reg îc)

the frog red larva (Polygonum persicaria). 15 (Bot reg îc)

the pig Dintele-dracului (Polygonum hydropiper) 16 (Fam îe) To be sharp like

adamant First name not very common in contemporary Romanian onomastics, adamant reproduces an old Hebrew biblical name ‘Adām. Name, according to the biblical myth, of the first man, created by God from clay, "in his own image and likeness", Heb. ‘Adām led to serious etymological disputes, the proposed solutions to explain its origin and meaning being many and different. One of the oldest explanations, suggested even in Genesis, brings the name pers. de ebr. ’Ādhāmah "Soil, earth", derived from the verbal radical ’Dm "To be red, red-brown." Although this etymology has been rejected by many scholars, it is interesting to note that in many languages ​​man is called "born of the earth" (in Atharva Veda it is said: "you who are earth, I put you in the ground", and at Chinese funeral ceremonies it is traditional the phrase "flesh and bones to return to the earth") the meaning of "red earth" is certainly correct in explaining the name of a settlement on the banks of the Jordan, ‘Adām (today Tell addamije), perfectly identical to the personal name. Another proposed etymology starts from Hebrew. ‘Adham, which designated the human species in general or man in particular (exceptionally the word also meant "man"). Other etymological attempts use Adām's explanation in Ethiopian (by approaching a word meaning "to be beautiful"), Arabic (based on a word meaning "to unite, to be sociable") or Assyrian (adamu „to make, to produce ”). As a curiosity, we also mention the symbolic explanation of the name adamant, considered an acronym in cuv. gr. Anatole "risen", Disir "Sunset", arctic "North" and Mesembria "South" (this is how the name is interpreted in The Rule of Matei Basarab). Widespread in Europe, Adam is much more common among Catholics than Orthodox (more common among Macedonians and Belarusians, probably also under Catholic influence). Entered us through a Slavic intermediary, quite old, but rare and with few derivatives (Adămuț, Adămuș, Adamachi), Adam has an interesting presence in Romanian folklore: in expressions (“Since when with old Adam”, “Iaca and Adam”, “To be a nation after Adam”, “from Adam Babadam” etc.), in riddles (“Who at death he alluded to the biblical origin of Adam? Italian, Spanish and French also formed as a personal name it .: via sancti Iacobi sp .: camino de Santiago fr .: chemin de Saint-Jacques etc.). Very little different from the general European form Adam, are it. Adam and sp. Adam. □ Symbol of the origins of humanity and of the Edenic period in Jewish mythology (identical with the Greco-Roman "golden age"), the myth of Adam appears in secular literature since the twentieth century. 12 in Anglo-Norman drama Repraesentatio Adae. The Armenian poem of Patriarch Arakhel of Siunik dates from 1300, Adam's book. In general, in the literature of the Middle Ages, Adam represents the type of man who sins, of the one who is subject to error. Starting with sec. 17, the character acquires new meanings, representing the one who decides to assume his evil and accepts the infinity of future suffering (like Adam de Giovanbattista Andreini, from 1613). a adamant free and consciously creates John Milton in Paradise lost, a last important appearance of the character being the one from The tragedy of man, by Imre Madách, as a symbol of the spiritual life of humanity.

Magdalena Female first name common and widespread throughout Europe, Magdalena is originally a nickname (probably of Greek formation) of one of the heroines of the biblical legend. Form gr. from N.T. Mariahe, kalumene Magdalene was rendered in Latin by Mary quae vocatur Magdalene, meaning "Mary, who is called Magdalene" or "Mary, called Magdalene". Indicating the local origin of the carrier, the nickname originally means “from Magdala”- fishing village, in Galilee, named today El-Megdel in Arabic and Almond in Hebrew the meaning of the toponym is clear as it corresponds to subst. almond "Tower, castle". Used independently and became a calendar name, Magdalena it does not spread to western Europe until after the sec. 13. According to a custom known in our country, in the south of France the month of July is called popular mes de la Madalena sau Madarena (also in connection with July and Magdalena, is also a Romanian name of apricots - in the Apuseni mountains - mugs). From Greek, through Slavic intermediary, the name reaches Romanians, being attested in the documents of Wallachia, since 1488 ("The Musa from Corbi was called a nun Magdalene”). As the frequency increases, a number of forms and derivatives appear, all of which are still in use today (Măgrușca, Măgduța, Madalina, Madaluta) and even male correspondents (Magdalene, Madalina, Măgduț). The most common hypocrisy today is without a doubt Magda, sometimes used as an independent first name, as well Madalina or Madalina. They are of recent western origin Madlen (fr. Madeleine), or madeleine and Marilena, consisting not of increase and Elena, as it would seem, but from Big(and Magda)lena, calendar name. L Engl. Magdalena, Magdelen, fr. Madeleine, germ. Magdelena, it. Maddalena, magh. Magdolna, Magdalena, bg., rus. Magdalene. ☐ Poet Magda Isanos, the French writer Madeleine de Scudery and so on

y e -y e s.n. Modern dance of South American origin that is characterized by rhythmic movements of the whole body, introduced to Europe by the French. ♦ Song after which this dance is performed. • / & ltfr. yé-yé.

PITA, glue, s.f. Bread of round or oval shape, slightly raised or flat, usually of unleavened dough, made from flour of different cereals. The glues are specific to oriental countries, the best known being pita, a dough of leavened dough made of wheat flour, usually used split, then filled like a wallet Chapa [pr. ciapati] and pure are specifically Indian glues tortilla [pr. tortilla] is the paste of South American countries, made mainly of corn, pressed and baked in special forms on the hob in Europe, the best known is focaccia Italian, made of pizza or bread dough, rectangular or round from the Scandinavian countries knäckebrot, a stick of wholemeal or rye flour, black, dry and crunchy.

e) m. and f. Person belonging to the large group of related peoples in Europe, divided into three branches: eastern (Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians), western (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, etc.) and southern (Bulgarians, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes) etc.). / & ltfr. glorified

Tamara Modern feminine first name whose presence in our current onomastics is probably explained by the influence of literature, Tamára it is originally an old personal Hebrew name. Based on subst. tamar "Palm tree", the Hebrew name is also found with toponymic value, designating a river and an ancient fortress in southern Canaan (today, in Arabic In, el-arus). Played in Greek by Thamara, the old biblical name is widespread in Europe, but its documentary appearances are extremely rare. It is interesting that the two people with this name attested so far in the late documents are men. ☐ Bg., Rus. Tamara, magh. Tamara. ☐ In modern times, the popularity of the name is also due to the beautiful Georgian princess in the famous poem demon of M.I. Lermontov.

Gregory Frequent and widespread among Romanians, Grigóre reproduces the name pers. gr. Gregorians. Unknown in antiquity, this is a newer creation of Greek onomastics (most attestations appear in the well-known Lexicon of Suidas, probably written in the sec. 10). Its significance Gregory it was clear to the postclassical Greek world, which used vb. Gregorian "I'm completely awake," egregora "I woke up, I'm awake" the adjective form of the name therefore has the meaning "awake", either in the concrete sense of "awakened from sleep", or in the figurative one, "with an awake mind, active" (neogr. Gregorians "Fast, fast"). Along with the form in question, they also appear in late Greek Gregoras, fem. Gregoria and even Gligóris. Also attested in the Latin epigraphy in the form Gregory (then even Glegorius), the name appears as a surname in the imperial era or as an independent name worn by slaves and freedmen. Made famous in the Christian world in the first centuries of our era by some prominent personalities of the Greek or Roman church, penetrated into the sacred onomasticon and became a calendar, Gregory it is spreading both in western and eastern Europe. Attested since a very old time, the name appears in the Eastern (Russian and Ukrainian) and southern (Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian) Slavic languages: in Galicia, a prince born at the beginning of the century. 11 bore this name, and scr. Grguric is attested in 1222, Gregory at 1275 etc. Through these languages, the Greek name spread to Romanians. In addition to documentary evidence, evidence of the antiquity of the name also brings the various beliefs and popular holidays related to Gregory. The popular interpretation of the name of one of the saints celebrated by the church is also interesting, Gregory the Theologian, respected for fear of holography - theologian was close to crippled at the so-called feast Trisfetite ("Three saints", Vasile, Grigore and Ion, known to us and as "three hierarchs" are practiced a number of customs related to the fear of wolves, and in some popular beliefs, Gregory the Theologian, former archbishop of Constantinople, he is a simple shepherd. If we add the well-known saying "want, don't want, drink Gregory aghiazma" we realize how deeply the name penetrated popular onomastics and how common it was many centuries ago (even in the modern era, in terms of frequency , Gregory is, according to some statistics, in eighth place among male first names). In the documents of Wallachia, the oldest attestation of the name is probably the form adj. ligace, from League (in 1385, part of the estate of the village of Tismana in Gorj was called "ligace ”). Forms Gligor and Gliga they appear later, in 1494. In the Moldavian documents from the time of Stephen the Great they appear Gligor, Grigor, Grigoraș. As with other common names, his family Gregory it is very rich in derivatives, hypochoristics and variants, many of them known as surnames or used as independent first names. Here are just a few of them: Grigoran, Goran, Grigoraș, Goraș, Grigorescu, Gorașcu, Grigorcea, Gorcea, Grigoriță, Grigoruță, Grig, Grigu(it), Griguță, Guţă, Griguș, Gligor, Gligoran, Gligoraș, Gligoruță, Gliga, Gligu(it), League, Mistake, Mistletoe, Buckwheat, Hrițco, Hrihul, Ghergheli, Gurgur, Gurgă, Gurgu, Gurguță and so on Female forms are extremely rare, this lack being replaced in some regions by a new formation, Grigorina. A recent loan from the west is hypocrisy Grig. Form Gregorian it is the result of the Latinization operation of our old names, first practiced in Transylvania and begun in the first half of the last century. ☐ Alb. Griguri, Ligor, Golio, engl. Gregory, fr. Gregory, germ. Gregor, port., sp., it. Gregorio, Mag .: Gergely, Gergö, bg. Grigory (with many hypochoristics and derivatives that also appear in our country), Russian. Gregory, ucr. Hryhir, Hrihorü, scr. Grgur, Grigorii and so on ☐ The rulers Grigore Alexandru Ghica and Grigore Dimitrie Ghica, an outlaw from the sec. 17 Gligor Pintea or Pintea Viteazul, known ballad hero. Among scientists, artists, writers: Grigore Tocilescu, Grigore Antipa, Grigore Ureche, Grigore Alexandrescu among foreigners, apart from many popes who bore this name, the naturalist Gregor Johan Mendel, Gregory Xenopulos, one of the founders of modern Greek literature. ☐ In Romanian literature Gorașcu Haramin is the name of a Sadovian character we also remember Grigori Melehov from On the quiet Don by M. Sholohov.

Armand Male first name appeared in our onomastics from the second half of the last century, uncommon today, Armand it is a cult loan from Western Europe. Specialists agree with the Germanic origin of the name and even with the fact that the secondary element of the original compound is the radical -mann- whose meaning was "human being" and later "man, adult, husband, etc." (word of Indo-European origin from the same family as Sanskrit. manually- „man, humanity” or v. Sl. Monje from which comes Russian. muj "husband"). Different opinions exist only regarding the first element of composition, which could be thread- or paper- the first is based on the common Germanic word * harjaz "Army" (related to gr. koiranos "Military commander"), and the second on * harthus, (related to gr. kratis "Strong, strong", -Kratos "Power" - from aristocracy, democracy). In the sec. 7 is attested in France form Hariman, and later Herm (in the famous Gesture songs) and even Armant, in South (-man from the Germanic name became in Old French -mandate). From France, where it is very common, the name spreads in Europe especially in the contemporary era. It seems, however, that Armand has been known (but not used) since the sec. 17, the Wallachian documents attesting the existence, in 1628, of a clerk with this name. ☐ Fr. Armand, Harmand, it. Armando, fem. Armand and Armandina, bg. Armand and so on ☐ Armand Duval, the character of the well-known Ladies with camellias of Al. Dumas-son.

Carmen The most common and frequent female first name, → Maria, he had a strange fate in certain periods and in certain countries. In ancient Spain, the cult of Mary was very widespread and enjoyed a special favor from the faithful as a result. increase it was considered a taboo word. His pronouncement being a great impiety, a compromise was resorted to: they were attributed by baptism, names of holidays or sanctuaries, which being dedicated to Mary, indirectly evoked her. That's how they came about Carmen, Consuelo, Mercedes, Nieves, Pilar, ground etc., the first of which is closely related to the Carmelite order established in 1156 on Mount Carmel in Palestine, the Carmelite monks, expelled by the Muslims, come to Europe and in 1247 turn into an order of beggars, placed under the protection of Mary from Carmel. Widespread in Spain around the sec. 14, the cult of Mary (in sp. Virgin or Our Lady or Maria del Carmel or Carmen) explains the appearance of the current first name Carmen, formed by removing the taboo name from the group Maria del Carmel. As we have seen, the name of the Carmelites comes from Carmel, the name of a mountain range that descends into the Mediterranean, approx. 20 km and with heights not exceeding 552 m. (Called today Djebel Carmel), the mountain was inhabited since the Neolithic. The mild climate of the region favors a particularly rich vegetation covered in winter with splendid flowers, Mount Carmel resembles a real garden, which is also the meaning of the place name: Hebrew. caramel "garden". From Spain and Portugal, the name spreads to southern Italy and Sicily (a male correspondent was also created here. Carmelo) and then in Spanish form Carmen, in all Europe . In our country, among the first names entered recently, Carmen it is one of the most widespread. Along with the basic name, derivatives are also known Carmelita, Carmelina, Carmencita and so on ☐ The well-known short story by Prosper Merimée certainly contributed to the spread of this name in Europe, Carmen, on the basis of which is written the libretto of the opera of the same name by G. Bizet.

archaic: l. spoken in the early, ancient period of the Latin people. ◊

imperial (classical, literary): l. used in writing by the educated Roman population during the Roman Empire. Formed following a long tradition, it set its rules through the writings of the best authors of the first century BC. (Caesar, Ovid, Horatiu and Virgil) and imposed himself as a model for all Roman writers of the following centuries. ◊

Christian: l. spoken during Roman Christianity, by Latin Christian writers. ◊

vulgar (popular): l. currently spoken by the Roman population (especially uneducated), characterized by a freer evolution of sounds and forms and by affective elements of vocabulary. It is known from inscriptions, from the writings of popular authors, from the testimonies of ancient authors (especially grammarians) and from the comparison of current Romance languages. ◊

late: l. spoken by the Roman population in the period immediately prior to the formation of the Romance languages ​​(until 200 AD). ◊

medieval: l. used in the countries of Western and Central Europe as the language of public and private acts and of worship. ◊

see: auxiliary international language, which is based on the universal transformation of Latin. It was created in 1956 by adaptation it. to the requirements of a modern language (stylistic freedom for its speakers, enrichment of vocabulary by Latinizing modern terms entered into general use, etc.). ◊

without flexion ("Inflectional Latin"): an artificial language created by simplifying the grammar of the Latin language to the maximum.

HISTORICAL JOURNAL OF SOUTHEAST EUROPE [revü istorík dü süd-est öropeén], a magazine published in Bucharest (1914-1946). Founded and led until 1940 by Nicolae Iorga, it published articles and studies on the history of the peoples of SE Europe, written mostly by its director, Nicolae Iorga.

Eleonore Widespread throughout Europe and quite common in the modern era, Eleonore is an old name of Arabic origin. Phraseological theophoric name translated by "He it is my light ", Ellinor is part of the long series of anthroponyms, common in northern and southern Arabia, where the element appears He, name of the only god in the ancient Arabs (in biblical Hebrew, Elohim and He- on behalf of pers.). If most of the names of Semitic origin used in Europe today have entered through Greek and Latin (the main source being the Bible), Eleanor begins to spread from Spain (conquered by the Arabs in 711-718). Penetrated into the Christian onomastic (very popular in Western Europe was the cult of Queen Eleanor, 1222-1291, wife of Henry III of England), the name reaches the modern era and us, quickly becoming a common female first name . Along with the fem forms. Leonora, Nora and Norina, masks also appear. his daughter in law and Norina (which have nothing to do with subst. cloud), probably Romanian creations. ☐ Engl., Fr. Eleonore, germ. Eleonor, Lenore, it., magh., bg., rus. Eleonora. ☐ Literature and music have a significant contribution to the popularization of the name: the well-known ballad Lenore by Gottfried A. Bürger, bride by H. Ibsen, series of overtures Leonora of Beethoven etc.

HOOKER [hú: kər], John Lee (1917-2001), American blues singer and guitarist. One of the initiators of the genre. Among the first to perform in Europe. Marked by his rural origins, he stands out from the Chicago blues with syncopated rhythms and a harsh style, adapted to his electric guitar. Serious voice, strong rhythms, raw words, sung with the accent and in the slang of the South ("Boogie chillen", "Shake it baby", "Let's make it baby").

NEANDERTHAL, valley in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia), in the Düssel river basin, afl. of the Rhine. - The man of

, human fossil type, named after the skull discovered (1856) in the valley N., fossil remains found in Europe, North Africa and Asia (Palestine). The English anatomist W. King, based on the discoveries of T.H. Huxley, introduces (1864) the name of Homo neanderthalensis. The man of N. was contemporary with Homo sapiens sapiens from the Middle East and Homo sapiens from South Africa and China. In Romania, fossil remains were discovered in the cave of Ohaba-Ponor.

Nicolae One of the most frequent and widespread Romanian names, with parallels in all European languages, Nicolae (Nicoláie) reproduces an old pers. gr. Nikolaos, used in ancient Greece many centuries before our era, among the earliest sources in which the name is attested we must mention the work of the historian Thucydides (c. 460-396 BC). Nikolaos falls into a rich family of compounds whose first element is nik- (vb. nikáo "To win", subst. NIKE "Victory"), its meaning largely explaining the favor enjoyed by the name and, implicitly, their frequency in Greek onomastics. Certainly the ancients did not care about the connection of these anthroponyms with the name of the goddess of victory, NIKE (in Romans identified with → VICTORIA) nor that Nikátor or Nikephóros (rom. Nichifor) were also surnames of Zeus. If we mention here on Nikandr (king of Sparta, known from the history of Herodotus), Nicanor, Níkarhos, Nikódoros, Nikoklés, Nicocrates etc., or on Nichifor, Nikita, Nicodemus, used in our country, we will be able to figure out the position of the element nik- in Greek onomastics (I have left aside another series in which -nikos is a secondary element of composition, as in → Andronicus, Calina etc.). The second part of it Nikolaos It is Laos or leos "People" (as in Leander). Passed in Latin as Nicolaus, continued in modern western languages, the name was used by the Romans as a surname. With the advent of Christianity, Nikolaos and Nicolaus were also worn by people who embraced the new religion, including a bishop of Myra (in southwestern Asia Minor), from the sec. 4, sanctified by the church, shrouded in the aura of legends and became one of the most popular saints of the Middle Ages. The cult of the bishop of Myra and the Balkan region enjoyed the same popularity, but the frequency of the name in this part of Europe cannot be explained exclusively by the church. In the popular calendar of Romanians, Nicula it is celebrated in May and especially in December, a whole series of essentially pagan beliefs, legends and practices being linked to its name, which favored the popularity of the cult and the name (→ Gheorghe Ion). In connection with the presence of the name in the onomastics of the Romanians, it has been issued for some time the hypothesis that the old form (Sin) Nicoara would continue lat. (Sanctus) Nicolaus. Indeed his transformation -it- in the -R- and its diphthongization -a- in the -oa- (as in grindmill) would support Latin origin. But, passing into Latin, gr. Nikolaos he shifted his focus to the long vowel -a- and became Nicoláus (the fact is proved by the old Italian form, Nicoláo, as well as the modern one, Niccolo (emphasized at the end) according to the phonetic laws -a- unaccented had to become in Romanian -u-, so Nicuráu, a form not yet attested in our country. However, we point out that in some cases the evolution of proper names may be different from that of common words and this has been proven more than once. Moreover, the non-existence of a complete index of all personal forms in popular documents and sayings does not yet allow definitive statements regarding the continuity of Latin and Romanian names. Nicholas it must therefore be considered as coming from the neighboring peoples in an old stage, which would explain the multitude of variants, hypocoristics and derivatives, many of them being created on Romanian soil, when the name reached a special frequency. (Although we have only two statistical processing of first names, from restricted areas, their results are still eloquent over a period of about 100 years, in several communes in the Sebeș Valley, Nicholas is in second place after → Ion, with a percentage of 10%, the situation being the same in a village near Sebeș). In the documents of Wallachia, Nicholas is known since the middle of the century. 14, when it was worn by the voivode Nicolae Alexandru (1352 - 1364) from 1417 begins to appear Nicolosi or Nicula (13 people with this name only up to 1500). We have to remember the shapes from about the same period Nicoara, Necoara, Micolai attested in Moldovan documents. Here are some of the members of the onomastic "family" Nicholas: intangible and Nicor (both forms are Moldovan), Nicorina, Nicorici, Nicoriță, Sîmnicoara and Sinic (from the name of the holiday), Necola, Nicolosi, Nicolinu and Nicolina, Colin, Nicoliță, colitis, Nicolițel (and in toponymy), Necula, Necula, Manor, Culiţă, Neculachi, Neculce(of), Necula, Niculae, Nice, Nicu, Nicuşor, Nicuțu, Naie, Mother, Năiță, troop etc., to which are added in the modern period Western loans Nicolet, package, Nic, Nichi and so on L Engl. Nicholas (hypoc. Nick, Nicky etc.), fr. Nicolas (Nicolosi, Nicolet, Queues, Collet, Colin), fem. Nicole (Nicoletti, Colette, etc.), germ. Nikolaus (Niklaus, Nickel, Klaus, to which we add Nils, specific to the Nordic countries), it. Nicolá, Niccolo etc., sp. Nicholas, magh. Miklos (Colossus, Mika, Miki, Mikló, Miku etc), fem. Nikolett, white. Nikkola, bg. Nikolai, Nikola etc., rus. Nikolai, Mikola, Mikola and so on ☐ N. Olahus, Romanian humanist from Transylvania, N. Milescu Spătaru, scholar and diplomat, the first Romanian to visit China, N. Bălcescu, great politician, historian, revolutionary democrat, organizer and leader of the Revolution of 1848 in Wallachia, N. Iorga, famous historian, orator, publicist and writer, N. Titulescu, well-known Romanian diplomat, writers N. Văcărescu, N. Filimon, pictorial N. Grigorescu, N. Tonitza Nicolá Lorenzo Gabrini or Cola di Rienzi (the hero of R. Wagner's work), Italian humanist, leader of the Republic of Rome (14th century), progressive thinker Nicolaus Cusanus, the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, the famous luthier Niccolò Amati, writers Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicolaus Lenau (born in Banat, in present-day Lenauheim), Nikolai Vasilievici Gogol, painter Nicolas Poussin, violinist Niccolò Paganini and so on

cling (Agathe) Exclusively feminine first name, widespread and quite common in European onomastics, Agatha reproduction gr. Agathé, , clear from the point of view of meaning, as it corresponds to the feminine form of the adjective agathós, agathé, agathón "Good" (word of Indo-European origin, from the same family as germ. gut, engl. good etc.). Since gr. Agathé appears only in inscriptions, in order to realize the antiquity and frequency of the name in Greek, it is necessary to remember that, being part of the same family, Agathon is attested in the Iliad, Agatharchos appears in Thucydides, Plutarch, Agatinos the Xenophon, Agathókleia to Polybius and Strabo, etc. Due to their meaning, some of these names (Agathé and Agathón) have penetrated into Christian onomastics, as evidenced, among other things, by the existence of the forms lat. Agathe or Agathe, attested only in the Christian era. Also worn by a martyr from Sicily (3rd century AD) considered patroness of the city of Catania and endowed, according to popular legends, with supernatural powers (heal the plague, drive away hunger and could even quell the eruption of Mount Etna) or a pope from sec. 7, cling and Agaton they spread through the calendar in Europe. Probably the popularity of the feminine form is also related to the proximity of the noun agate "Precious stone, hard and variously colored", with which, despite the formal resemblance, has no etymological connection the name of the precious stone, gr. akhátes, lat. shopping, comes from the name of a river in southern Sicily (today How many or Dirillo) where the precious stone was found in abundance. By another popular etymology, the Czech form Hata she was close to the word hady "Snake", St. Agatha being thus invoked against snakes. Through neighboring Slavic languages, where cling, in different forms, appears from the sec. 15, the old Greek names reach the Romanians as well. in the documents of Wallachia cling appears from 1440, and Agaton since 1407 (the name of the abbot of the Vodița and Tismana monasteries) in Moldova the forms are attested agafita in 1490 (in the Slavic languages ​​Agathe and Agape were confused, so that in our old documents the forms cannot be separated for sure) and cling in 1499 (since it is a “Hungarian woman from Hîrlău”, it must be considered a case of Latin-Catholic influence). Other forms attested in the following centuries, many obsolete or remaining as family names, are either loans or Romanian modifications: Agatiia, Gatia, Gata, Ogafia, Agafița, Gafița, Gafina, Agahia, Gahia, Gahița, Hafie, Hahie, Gafa, Gaha and so on More difficult problems raise the forms with -ft-: Agafta, Gafta, Gaftița, Gaftia and so on The presence of this phonetic treatment in Romanian was attributed to the Bulgarian or Russian influence, a hypothesis that is not verified. Greek sound noted by -th- was always rendered in Bulgarian by -t-, and in Russian, although sometimes there is confusion between -ph- and -th-, the latter never appears as -ft-. The explanation for his appearance -ft- it should probably be looked for in analogy with other names that normally have the group -ft- appeared by his metathesis -tf-, etymologically, as in Maftei (→ Matthew). Agaton, used more in ecclesiastical circles also appears in the forms Agafton (today the name of a locality and a monastery in the north of Moldova) and Gafton (today surname). Engl. Agathe, fr. Agathe, Agathon, germ. Agathe, Agatho, it. cling, magh. Agatha, Agot, bg. agafita (the only exception regarding the sound treatment gr. -th-, probably motivated by the old confusion between love feast and Agathé), rus. agafita, cling, ucr. Hafi and so on ☐ The tragic Athenian poet Agathon, contemporary with the writer Socrates Agatha Christie.Agathe, female character in the opera Freischütz of Weber.

jidán, -áncă s. (răd. jid from Jew and suffix -year, as in lout vsl. Židinŭ, židŭ, ung. Zsidó, lat. Judaeus, vgr. Jews. V. Jew, Judas). Jew, Jew, Semitic from Palestine. FIG. Om fricos. Fierce moneylender: Shakespeare's Shylock's money is Jidan's. In Munt. east and Mold. south is used feminine Jidoafca, in North Judaica. Jew and Jew His epithets are full of contempt. And more contemptuous Hárhar, iúcman, iuda, Párhal, Tarhón, Tîrtán to. The Jew likes to tell him Jew, or Israelite. Romanian also says who. In 1911 there were 8,853,599 Jews in Europe, of which 5,211,805 in Russia, 600,862 in Germany, 2,076,388 in the former Austro-Hungary, 100,000 in France, 35,617 in Italy, 2,500 in Spain, 266,653 in old Romania (in reality it must have been almost 500,000), in Europe 106,978 in Turkey, 1,200 in Portugal, 32,012 in Sweden, 5,729 in Serbia, 37,653 in Bulgaria, 12,366 in Switzerland, 8,350 in Greece, 3,176 in Denmark, 641 in Norway, 15,000 in Belgium, 237,860 in England. The rest, up to about 14,000,000, live in America (United States and Argentina) and other continents. V. cahal, freemason.

TOAST (& lt engl toast, short speech the piece of toast that was put in the cup of beer, at the feast) Short speech most often said at the table, in someone's honor. Ex. The toast of President Nicolae Ceausescu, on the occasion of his visit to the United States of America: Mr. President, Mrs. Carter, Ladies and Gentlemen, It is a great pleasure for me and my wife, for the collaborators who accompany me, to be your guests tonight, to we visit the United States again, to meet many citizens of your homeland. Today we had the first discussions on a wide range of issues. We have reached a series of common conclusions, first of all in connection with the need for a wider cooperation between our countries, as well as for more sustained actions towards peace, the democratization of international relations, the assurance of the right of every people to live freely. to develop according to his aspirations. You have spoken, Mr President, of the fact that many citizens of the United States have come from Europe or other parts of the world. I cannot boast that in Romania there are many citizens who came from other places, because almost 2,050 years - taking into account that in 1980 we will celebrate 2,050 years since the establishment of the first Dacian state - Romanians have stayed and will stay in those lands, they fought to be free, and they will always be free! Of course, the history of our countries is different from other points of view. The United States is a developed country, a great country! Romania is a smaller country, still developing, but animated by the desire to do everything, based on the work of its people, to ensure the widest possible development, access to the achievements of science and civilization, to provide people with a dignified, free and independent life. I believe that, despite these historical differences, especially those of social order, there are many things that can be common to both countries and peoples - the desire for progress, the desire for all the conquests of human genius to be put at the service of peoples' happiness, and without a doubt, the desire to do everything so that the wonderful conquests of science and technology do not serve destruction and war, but serve the progress, the well-being of every people, of all peoples. I believe that this is the supreme reason of man himself. This is the fundamental problem of human rights - to know how to be free and respect the freedom of others, to know how to do everything so that both he and his peers can enjoy everything that creates the best civilization. (Live applause) Of course, on some issues we can, rightly, have different philosophical principles. And there is nothing wrong with that. But we, in Romania, start from the fact that everything we achieve must serve the well-being of the people, to help man to live a more dignified, more equitable life, sharing - as the Romanian says - the little which we have it in such a way that everyone can enjoy what has been created in the country. You spoke tonight about your election campaign, about the way you were elected President of the United States. Of course, it's a wonderful thing that you were able to overcome the obstacles - and thus be a farmer at the head of the United States. I am also the son of a peasant: I worked in the fields and in factories. So in Romania, at the head of the state is a son of a peasant and a worker - and maybe that's why the Romanian people understand well that what we achieve is for themselves, being determined to do everything to ensure a more dignified life. (Loud applause) In fact, if I remember correctly, one of the first presidents of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, was a worker, and the founder of scientific socialism, Marx, spoke of "this honest son of the working class" - as he called him - as an example. the way in which working people can rise to the highest responsibilities in state leadership. Of course, when we talk about human rights, it is good to remember all this because human rights begin with the right to work, the right to education, the right to culture, the right to a free life, the right to take part in the leadership of the state, without any discrimination, and including the right to have any religious belief or philosophical belief. We fully respect and consider that these rights are sacred - so to speak - that everything must be done for them to assert themselves in all the states of the world and to form the basis of an equal collaboration between all nations. That is why we are against war, for disarmament and, first and foremost, for nuclear disarmament. That is why we believe that we must do everything so that the world is no longer divided into opposing military blocs, but to achieve new, equal relations, without military blocs. That is why we are in favor of a political solution in the Middle East. We have welcomed President Sadat's initiative - and we hope that Israel will respond appropriately to this initiative, that all states in this area will act to achieve a lasting and just peace. For the same reasons, we want new relations to be established in Europe, to carry out the provisions of the Helsinki documents. But, being many "baskets", we want to pay attention to all, and especially to military issues, because on the European continent, where many American citizens came from, are concentrated most armies and the most modern armament. And you know that Europe is too small to have room for armies and armaments - which should be removed. That is why, paying attention to all the "baskets", we give the greatest importance to military disengagement and disarmament. For the same reasons, we support the liberation movements in Rhodesia and Namibia, the struggle of the majority in South Africa, of these peoples who have the right to be free, to decide their own destiny and to participate in their own rule. Finally, I can't help but talk about the fact that two thirds of humanity is poor, while one third is relatively rich, because not all of them are rich. This requires us to do everything, to be with the poor, with the developing countries, helping them to achieve faster economic and social progress, because only in this way can we ensure that all nations enjoy the conquests of civilization. . I would very much welcome the United States to actively support the resolution of these problems in a new form, if indeed it would do more for these two-thirds of humanity living in poverty. Of course, I have in mind not only the United States, but all developed countries, all those who can and must act to solve in a new form these problems vital to the future of mankind. We know very well that these problems cannot be solved by just a few countries, even large ones, such as the United States. It is necessary for all peoples to unite their efforts to reach solutions that correspond to the aspirations of each nation. We are convinced that, despite the existing difficulties, the peoples will be able to solve problems in a new way, to achieve a fairer and better world. We want our visit and conversations to identify new areas of collaboration between Romania and the United States, as well as new opportunities to contribute to solving complex problems that concern all mankind. In conclusion, I would like to thank you, once again, for the hospitality we enjoy in the land of your country. I want to toast for a good collaboration between Romania and the United States! For a democratic international policy! I wish the American people prosperity and peace! To your health, Mr. President, and to Mrs. Carter! And I look forward to seeing you in Romania! To your health, everyone's. (Applause).

Baldovin Very rarely in our contemporary onomastics, Baldovin (fem. Baldovina) is an old name of Germanic origin, attested since the sec. 7 in France in the forms Baldavin, Baldovin, Badovin and in sec. 8, in Italy, in the Lombard form Paldoin (in 568, the Longobards, from the tribes of the East Germans, conquer northern Italy, their memory being preserved to this day in the name of the province LOMBARDIA). Composed of the elements bald "Bold, strong", and win "Friend", common in Germanic anthroponymy, the name would mean "bold friend, strong friend". Became a calendar and spread especially in the Germanic regions and France (here the name was popularized by medieval literature), Baldovin becomes known in sec. 13 and in eastern Europe, as a result of the Crusades (in the history of the Eastern Latin Empire two emperors are known by this name: Baldwin I (Boudouin) Count of Flanders, leader of the Fourth Crusade and conqueror of Constantinople and Baldwin II, expelled in 1261 Byzantine Emperor Michael the Palaeologus). At the same time, the name is attested in the Southern Slavs (in the Serbs and Croats in the 12th-13th centuries, Hippoc. Balde, and in sec. 14, Baldovin) and to the Romanians (between 1391 - 1415 a Baldovin logopath, was part of the princely council of Wallachia, in 1559 another Baldovin it was owned by the lord at Fundeni, near Bucharest, and in 1571 it appears in documents and a lump Baldovina, the wife of a great scoundrel). As in the following centuries, hypocrisy is also attested. Baldea, Baldeș, Bălde (probably the Slavs considered the ending - ovine as a compound suffix -ov + -in the) or toponymic derivatives Baldovineşti and Băldești, it can be stated that, although infrequently, the name entered our onomastics from an ancient era through the southern Slavs (Bulgarians and Serbs), for Transylvania the Latin Catholic influence must be taken into account.

KRUGER [krügər], Paul (Stephanus Johannes Paulus) (1825-1904), South African politician. Founder of the Transvaal state (1852). After its annexation by the British, who included it in the Natal colony (1877), together with N.W. Pretorius and P.J. Joubert, led the anti-English insurrection (1880), ended with the proclamation of the independent republic Transvaal, of which he was president (1883-1900). During the Anglo-Bur War (1899-1902), he sought support for his country in Europe.

BENJAMIN Little used in our contemporary onomastics, BENJAMIN reproduces an old Hebrew name. Benjamin, attested in V.T. The name was given by the last and most beloved of Jacob's 12 sons who, as related in the book Genesis, would have been born during the journey from Bethel to Ephratha his mother Rachel dies immediately after birth, but not before naming the child → Benoni, "But his father called him BENJAMIN”. Also worn by one of the Israelite tribes, the name BENJAMIN it has been interpreted in various ways. The first and oldest hypothesis is the biblical one, after which Benjamin would mean "son of the righteous" (in Vulgate,filius dexterae”). As the "right" symbolizes luck and happiness, some commentators on Hebrew texts make explicit the old interpretation by "son of luck, happiness." The recently tried proximity to the Assyrian name Minijamini leads to the same results, although it would not be out of the question for the Hebrew name to be older and changed in Babylon in the original part, Ben "Son". In connection with the name of the tribe, Benjamin he was also interpreted as "son of the south" (the right side indicating the south). The recent discovery of cuneiform inscriptions from Big (ancient fortress in eastern Syria, on the middle Euphrates), dating from the sec. 20-17 BC, would make it possible to approach it Benjamin by the name of a nomadic tribe warrior Banuyamina, attested in the tablets that formed the state archive of King Zimrilim, defeated by Hammurabi. The name from V.T. it has been used in western Europe since the 15th century. 4, but it becomes more common only after the Reformation. As a trace of biblical legend, in some Western languages, the personal name has even become a common word (Fr. benjamin, it. beniamino) meaning "little one, favorite son, favorite person". Entered us through Slavic Greek (BENJAMIN) the name appears, very rarely, a few centuries ago in the form Veniamin, fem. Veniamina current form BENJAMIN is of western origin and continues, in a cult way, lat. BENJAMIN. Engl. Benjamin (hypoc. frequently Ben), fr. Benjamin (hypoc. Jamin, Jamine), it. Benjamin, sp. Benjamin, magh. Benjamin, Benjamin, bg., rus. Veniamin (hypoc. Come on, Mina etc.). ☐ The poet Benjamin Fundoianu, the American physicist Benjamin Franklin, composer Benjamin Britten and so on

Constantin One of the most common and common first names today, Constantin reproduces the surname lat. Constantine, attested quite late (Emperor Constantine the Great, 4th century AD). As you can easily see, Constantinus is a derivative of suf. -inus from Constantius (fem. Constantia), a frequent Roman surname but also a gentile name, widespread in the post-classical era. Constantius it, in turn, comes from the surname Constans, gender. Constantis, attested for the first time in sec. 2 e.n., present also in the inscriptions from Dacia (at 138, a procurator with this name), formed on the basis of adj. constans, constants "Constant, firm", the participle of the verb lat. consto "To be firm, strong" - compound of the verb sto "To sit", according to the Greek model. If in western Europe the forms coming from Constantius (the catholic church preserves the memory of a martyr from the time of Marcus Aurelius and a martyr from the time of Nero), in the east of Europe the form spread Constantin, especially due to the fame of the emperor Constantine the Great, supporter of Christianity, considered by the church of equal Greek rite of the apostles. Form gr. Konstantinos enters, through Slavic intermediary, also in Romanian, where the name is attested, together with a rich series of hypochoristics and derivatives, since the end of the century. 14 and the beginning of the sec. 15. Among the first to appear in the documents from Wallachia (present in the anthroponymy of the southern peoples - Bulgarian, Serb, Croatian Slavs) we cite Coia (1492), Coica (1424), Consisting of (1412), cost (the oldest, from 1389), Costinca (1469). In Moldova, in the documents issued during the reign of Stephen the Great, they also appear Costachi, Coste, Costin and so on In general, hypochoristics and their derivatives, mostly identical or similar to those in Slavic, Albanian, Greek, etc., are formed from themes obtained through a false analysis - Cost - (first part of the name) and - from - (final part of the name). Here are the series consisting of the two themes: Costa, Costea, Costache, Tache, Tăchel, Tăchiță, Costăchel, Costăchiță, Costan, Costel, Costică, Costin or Cota, Costaș, Tică, Ticu, Ticuș, Ticuță, Costilă, Costiță, Codin, Codina, Cotan, Cotea, Cotinel, Cocea, Cociu, Coia, Coica, Condea, Coța, Coca, Conea etc., Dinu and Dina, Dinică, Dincea, Diniță, Dinuț, Dinuță, Dincu, Dincă, Dincuță, Dicu, Dică, Dicuț, Didea, Dițu, Dița Tin, Tina, Tinică and so on Many of the names listed above are known today and as a family name among the very common hypochoristics, used and independently, generally known, we note on Costica, Costel, Dinu and Dina, Dinuțu, Codin. For the feminine, form is also common Constant (with hypocrisy. Tanța, Tănțica, Tănțel, Tanți etc.), derived from an older one Constancy. Lately for the male it is also used Constant (probably borrowed from French). ☐ Fr. Constans, Constant, Constantin, Constance, it. Constance, Constance, germ. Konstantin (hypoc. Kunst), Constance (hypoc. Stanza), sp. Constantius, Constantius, Russian. Konstantin, Konstantina, magh. Konstancia, Konstantina, Konstantin and so on ☐ The Roman emperor Constantine the Great (Flavius ​​Valerius Constantinus), 306-337, the first Christian emperor (decreed Christianity the state religion), unified the Roman Empire, recaptured the regions north of the Danube (during his time was built the wave of defense known as "Novac's Furrow") . Of the many Byzantine emperors named Constantine, we only mention Constantine Porphyrogenitus (author of writings that provide valuable information on Romanians south of the Danube) and Constantine the Eleventh Dragases, the last Byzantine emperor, perished with the fall of Constantinople under the Turks, on May 29, 1453. In Wallachia and Moldavia, between 1607 and the Union, 10 lords with this name are known, among whom we mention Constantin Șerban Basarab, Constantin Brîncoveanu and Constantin Cantemir. Romanian scientists and culture: Constantin Cantacuzino, Dinicu Golescu, C (onstantin) A. Rosetti. In toponymy, his name Constantine the Great was preserved in Constantinople "the city of Constantine", built by the famous emperor on the site of ancient Byzantium, between 326 and 330 AD, became the capital of the entire empire, from 395 only the Eastern Roman Empire, and later from 1453, when is conquered by the Turks, the capital of the Ottoman Empire under the name of Istanbul (until 1923). The feminine form Constant is the name of our well-known city (on the site of the Greek colony Tomis), of an alpine lake located between R.F. Germany, Austria and Switzerland and the West German city located on its shores.

Philoteia (Filofteea) Less and less used today, Philoteía reproduces the name pers. gr. Philothéa, the male correspondent. Philotheos unattested in classical times, the name is a compound of phil(a)- „Lover” (→ philippic) and theos "God", thus belonging to the rich and widespread family of theophorics. Through the Christian name and calendar, the Greek name spread to Europe (in the west, where it is uncommon today, through Latin). The rare and late appearances in our documents, his presence especially in the ecclesiastical circles, are indications of the unpopularity of the Romanian name. If the shapes Philotei and Filoteia does not raise problems of a phonetic nature, forms Filoftei and Filofteea they are more difficult to explain. They are currently attributed to Slavic influence, but neither in the Eastern nor in the southern Slavic languages ​​is the treatment known. -ft- for gr. -th- (in Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian the Greek sound is rendered by -t-, and in Ukrainian and Russian by -f-) the change could be explained on Romanian soil, by analogy with names where -ft- is etymological → Eftimie, Maftei, Matei). Surname FILOTE or Hiloti, of neo-Greek influence, has the same etymology, Teia, YiA and AF are hypocritical of the female first name. ☐ Fr. Philothée, it. Filoteo, Filotea, magh. FILOTE, bg. Filotei, Filoteia, Russian. Filofei, Filofeia and so on

feather Less common today than in past centuries, also known as a family name, feather corresponds to the name pers. gr. Panagiotes [ghi], anthroponymic formation proper to the Christian period, identical with subst. panagiotes (pronounced later panaiótis) "Holiness", used as a title for patriarchs. Panagiotes is a derivative of panagia (pronounced panaíia), “Most holy” - originally an epithet of the Virgin Mary, and later replacing her very name, consisting of pan- "Completely, completely" (→ Pamfil) and adj. (h)Agios, (h)agia, (h)action, "Holy" (word also known from compounds hagiography, hagiology etc.). The name in question should not be confused with Panakia (attested in inscriptions) and Panakieia (among others, the name of the daughter of Asclepius, known from the works of Aristophanes, Aristotle, etc.), consisting of pan- and vb. akéo "To heal." Becoming a personal name and evoking the mother of Jesus (as in Spain the same character was remembered by → Carmen Consuela Dolores etc.), Panaghía it spread quite quickly in Eastern Europe, being attested in our country since the 15th century. 16) and leaving traces in toponymy. Under the neo-Greek influence, in the same period appears masc. Panaghiót (the form reproduces the Greek pronunciation), and in sec. 17, Panaiot(e), Panaiut, Panaet, Panaitache, close to modern pronunciation (in neo-Greek it even appears the form Panaitis). Since the name Panagia and Panaiot are also known in Bulgarian, it is not excluded that in some cases we have to deal with a South-Slavic intermediary. ☐ The poet Panait Cerna and the prose writer Panait Istrati and so on

-black) Vultur (1) imposing, with brown-gray back, black wings, belly and yellow-rusty chest, Si: Zagan (Gypaëtus barbatus). 4 (Ic)

-paint-brown Vultur (1) with a thick neck, dark brown feathers, the largest bird of prey in Europe (Aegypius monachus). 5 (Ic)

pleșuv-sur Vultur (1) with gray feathers, with a whitish feather collar (Gyps fulvus). 6 (Ic)

, congress convened on 1/13 June. - 1/13 July. 1878, at the initiative of the great European powers, for the revision of the Treaty of San Stefano. It recognized Romania's independence, proclaimed on May 9, 1877, and restored the authority of the Romanian state over Dobrogea. At the same time, it recognized the independence of Serbia and Montenegro, established the principality of Bulgaria, vassal of Turkey, and transformed South Bulgaria into a reg. autonomous (Western Rumelia) within the Ottoman Empire. He sanctioned the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary. - Berlin Conference v. Potsdam, Conference of

Klaus Iohannis, at the annual meeting with the heads of diplomatic missions accredited in Bucharest: The year 2019 brought to Romania a Government that resonates with the President in all dimensions of government, including foreign policy

On Thursday, at the Cotroceni Palace, President Klaus Iohannis hosted the annual meeting with the heads of the diplomatic missions accredited in Bucharest, during which he spoke about Romania's priorities, especially abroad. "The year 2019 brought to Romania a Government that resonates with the President in all dimensions of government, including foreign policy," said the head of state, according to which membership in the European Union and NATO remain the basic pillars of Romania's foreign policy.

On Thursday, at the Cotroceni Palace, President Klaus Iohannis gave a speech at the annual meeting with the heads of the diplomatic missions accredited in Bucharest.

Iohannis appreciated that the next period is "essential for our future, with many important challenges, but also with opportunities".

& rdquoThe year 2019 brought to Romania a Government that resonates with the President in all dimensions of government, including foreign policy. I assure you, with all responsibility, that I will continue to ensure that Romania remains, externally, a vector of stability and a firm promoter of democracy. Our foreign policy will be, as it is now, under the sign of continuity and predictability, but it will naturally change some accents and nuances, meant to give more coherence and consistency, said the head of state.

He announced that "our membership of the European Union and NATO, together with our strategic partnership with the United States, remain the cornerstones of our foreign policy."

& rdquo & Icircn As for the European Union, we want to capitalize on the experience gained during our Presidency last year. We have shown that we are a mature and responsible member of the Union, capable of involving and assuming complex objectives in strengthening the European project. As a constant supporter of the idea of ​​a stronger Europe, we will contribute to strengthening the European project on the basis of an honest and open partnership with all Member States and the European institutions. We will work to have a stronger, more united, more competitive and more inclusive Union, more secure and accessible to all its citizens. These were, by the way, the main messages of the Sibiu Declaration. That is why we intend to be actively involved in the Conference on the Future of Europe, Iohannis said.

He believes that we need a common approach on all major European issues, such as combating climate change, the digital agenda, economic growth or deepening the internal market, migration and asylum, agreeing on an ambitious Union budget, enlargement policy, promoting European values ​​and strengthening the European Union's external action.

Rome will continue to support the Union's enlargement policy, especially in order to open accession negotiations with the two candidate countries - Northern Macedonia and Albania - as soon as possible. The discussion on the efficiency of the extension methodology should in no case block or aggravate this process. At the same time, we will continue to work for accession to the Schengen Area, which will significantly contribute to strengthening security for the entire free movement area in the Union and also for joining the Eurozone, when all conditions will be met, "he said. the state that also spoke about the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union.

President Klaus Iohannis stressed the need for a strong, united and effective North Atlantic Alliance.

& rdquo & Icircn the current international context facing older and newer risks, challenges and threats, the need for a strong, united and effective North Atlantic Alliance is greater than anything else. NATO is a successful military alliance and we will continue to work very closely with the other Allies to make it even stronger. We are determined to continue to live up to our commitments to allocate 2% of GDP to defense and will continue to work to strengthen the Alliance's deterrent and defense stance, especially on its Eastern Flank. At the same time, without affecting the Allied effort on the Black Sea, Romania will support NATO's increased involvement in the Middle East and the fight against terrorism, Iohannis said.

& rdquoStrategic partnership with the United States remains a constant in our policy and in the broader context of our consistent interest in strengthening transatlantic relations. We will continue to deepen the bilateral relationship, building on the strategic priorities set out in the Joint Declaration we adopted at the August 2019 meeting with President Trump. comprehensive security. I am referring here to areas such as cyber and telecommunications security or energy security. Promoting trade and increasing investment, strengthening relations in the field of education and research, making progress in raising visas for Romanian citizens are in turn important objectives for the next period, the head of state added.

He also announced that we would pay special attention to the further development of strategic or special partnerships and relations with Germany, France, Poland, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, Turkey or Israel, along with those with all our direct neighbors.

& rdquo & Icircn Regarding the Republic of Moldova, I reiterate the position of Romania: the European path is the only and surest way to the profound reform of the institutions, likely to bring tangible benefits to its citizens. Unfortunately, as I said before, we are not at all convinced that the current government in Chisinau is proposing this goal. Therefore, we will only continue support projects that are directly dedicated to citizens, projects with a local impact and strategic interconnection projects. We will resume full cooperation only when we see at governmental level concrete action aimed at continuing the European path, the reform process, especially in areas such as justice, administration and the fight against corruption, in order to ensure a democratic path and internal predictability. extern & rdquo, Iohannis also said.

According to him, the major directions of action, drawn in the past years, remain valid even when we are talking about the Western Balkans or the other Eastern Partnership states.

& rdquo & Icircn broader plan, our foreign policy priorities are aimed at strengthening relations, including economic ones, with other states and areas of interest in the world, including Japan, South Korea, China, India, and countries in Asia, Africa. , Latin America and the Caribbean. We aim to sustainably consolidate the openings of the last two years, some unprecedented in 2020. We want a relevant strategic partnership with Japan, which will consolidate the results of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's historic visit to Bucharest in 2018, and we hope that this goal will materialize next year, on the centenary of political and diplomatic relations, Iohannis added.

& rdquo & Icircn Regarding the recent crisis situation in the Middle East, we have already expressed, as you know, the position of Rom & acircnia, so I will not repeat & icircn in detail. But I want to emphasize that the negative effects of this crisis are not only projected at the regional level. They can also have an impact on European and global security. Therefore, the efforts of dialogue, negotiation, as well as those of stabilization and reconstruction in this space must continue and call on all our partners to act for this goal. Rom & acircnia supports the steps of the European Union, which needs to be more involved, of its strategic partners and of the international community to de-escalate the situation, to dialogue and to look for sustainable solutions & rdquo, the president also declared.

He believes that solutions are needed that will bring peace and security to the area and to the people of the Middle East, Europe, the United States and elsewhere, both in the situation in Iraq and in the Iranian case, as well as in Libya. Progress is needed on the Syrian issue, on Yemen, but also on the Middle East Peace Process, on which Romania's position remains unchanged.

"Also, the fight against terrorism is not over. "We need to continue our united, supportive efforts, and NATO, as I said, can play an increased role," Klaus Iohannis said.

Read also Dozens of VICTIMS in Germany after a cruise ship hit the pillar of a bridge

Borderless tragedy! Dozens killed in Germany after a cruise ship with 129 people on board hit a bridge over the Rhine.

27 people were injured last night after a Swiss passenger ship sailing on the Rhine hit the pillar of a bridge over a highway near Duisburg in western Germany.

The cruise ship ‘Swiss Crystal’, with 129 people on board, mostly Belgians, Dutch and Luxembourgers, was destined for the Netherlands.

Of the 27 people injured, most have only minor injuries, according to police. Four of those who were initially thought to be seriously injured were discharged from the hospital this morning, according to

Awards and achievements

Padma Lakshmi has appeared on the covers of many magazines, including "Vogue India", "L'Officiel India", "Cosmopolitan", "Asian Woman", "Avenue", "Industry Magazine", "Marie Claire India", "Harper's Bazaar ”, & # 39and & # 39 Newsweek & # 39.

The cookbook "Easy Exotic" was awarded the best book at the 1999 Gourmand World Cookbook Awards.

In 2007, Top Chef hosted the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Reality Competition Program. In 2009, she was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Host for a Reality Competition or Reality Program for the same "Top Chef" program.

Books in the field of Literature and History

As usual, we want to please your eye and heart with newly purchased books at our library. This time with books in the field History and Literature.

Lorenz, Marita. I was the spy who loved Fidel Castro / Marita Lorenz. - Bucharest: RAO, 2018. - 281 p.

"Few people can say that Ilona Marita Lorenz, that they lived a life like in movies: from the Nazi concentration camps to Fidel Castro, from the CIA to the assassination of Kennedy. Marita's story is that of a spy who, above all, loved Fidel Castro.

The book presents the romanced story of this woman, with lights and shadows, with truths told in full or only in half, leaving the reader to choose what is authentic and what is fiction.

The author recounts her entire life, from early childhood to the publication of the book, marking especially the sad childhood of the war, the pilgrimages with her father to the great world, her romantic relationships with Fidel Castro, Marcos Perez Jumenez, the former Venezuelan dictator and with members of the Mafia.

She talks about CIA and FBI actions she took part in, proud that at one point she was told Mata Hari of the Caribbean.”

Tanase, Stelian. Conversations with King Mihai / Stelian Tănase neat edition: Elena Vijulie. - Bucharest: Corinth, 2018. - 282 p.

„This volume includes 12 dialogues with King Mihai recorded by the writer Stelian Tănase in April 2005. They took place at the Elisabeta Palace in Bucharest.

The interviews were to continue and be part of a television series, which was to be broadcast on public television after the 22 episodes of the film Dynasty, also made by Stelian Tănase. Various obstacles over time have delayed the completion of the project. "

Grandmother, David. Z. The lost city. The Amazonian story of a fatal obsession / David Grann English translation and notes: Ioana Miruna Voiculescu. - Bucharest: Art, 2018. - 365 p.

"In 1925, the British explorer Percy Fawcett set out on an expedition in the Amazon jungle in search of a legendary civilization. It was going to be his last trip, from which he never returned. Decades in a row, other adventurers followed him, trying to understand what happened to him and find the lost city Z. Fawcett's biography signed by David Grann solves the most disturbing mystery of exploration in the last century. "

"Fascinating narrative, with scientific and historical values, with obsessive characters"

Entertainment Weekly

MacMillan, Margaret. Peacemakers. Six months that changed the world / Margarert Macmillan English translation: Smaranda Câmpeanu. - Bucharest: Trei Publishing House, 2018. - 710 p.

Between January and June 1919, after the end of the "war that was to end all wars," people from all over the world arrived in Paris for the Peace Conference. The most important personalities present were the leaders of the three great powers - Woodrow Wilson, Lloyd George and Clemenceau - but thousands of other delegates arrived in Paris, each with his own agenda. Kings, prime ministers and foreign ministers, accompanied by their adviser suites, stood side by side with journalists and lobbyists, fighting for a range of causes, from Armenia's independence to women's rights. T. E. Lawrence, Queen Maria of Romania, Maynard Keynes, Ho and Min - the whole world had something to solve in Paris that year. The world had never seen anything like it before, and it would never see it again. "

Service, Robert. The last tsar. Nicholas II and the Russian Revolution / Robert Service English translation: Irina Negrea. - București: Editura Trei, 2019. - 416 p.

"Although the death of Nicolae and his family on July 17, 1918 indisputably requires an updated analysis in the light of existing new and old documents, the previous months should also be studied carefully. Deprived of his liberty, Nicolae had the respite to reflect on his reign from 1894. However, it is surprising to note how rare it was that his daily notes and recorded conversations were used to better understand. his way of thinking. ”

In addition to the novel itself, you will see maps, the list of illustrations, bibliography, notes and index.

Atkinson, Kate. A Crushed God / Kate Atkinson English translation and notes: Irina Negrea. - Bucharest: Art, 2018. - 650 p.

"If in Life after life Atkinson presents the possible lives of Ursula Todd during World War II, A crumbling god proposes a change of perspective, in the center of attention is now Ursula's brother, Teddy, a bomber captain during the conflagration. The author deliberately dislocates the chronology of events, which makes us find out in advance details of Teddy's life, but, paradoxically, this does not diminish, but amplifies the suspense of the story, leaving us to wonder, with each chapter: how it came here? The novel is, among other things, an ethical reflection on war and, in the context of death, on what it means to be on the side of good or evil. ”

Walsh, Rosie. The man who never called / Rosie Walsh English translation: Oana Bogzaru. - Bucharest: Nemira, 2018. - 335 p.

"Imagine that you meet a man, that you spend six unforgettable days together and that you fall madly in love with him. The feeling is mutual, you feel it with your whole being. So when he goes on a trip and promises to call you from the airport, you have no reason to think he won't.

Weeks pass, all his friends urge you to forget him, but you know that something must have happened to him, there must be a reason for his silence.

What if you find out you've always been right? But is that the only thing you didn't share with each other? ”

Failed, Hans. Each dies alone / Hans Fallada German translation and notes: Gabriella Eftimie. - Bucharest: Art, 2018. - 727 p.

"While Hitler supplies cannon fodder across Europe in Berlin in 1940, Otto and Anna Quangel - a simple working-class couple - after losing their only son in the war, go from tacit resignation and indifference to smoldering rage and decide it's time to fight the system. Their resistance seems meaningless - he denounces the Nazi regime through postcards and letters he randomly distributes - but it equals supreme defiance in a world where even the slightest disobedience means death. ”

Everyone dies alone it speaks of the grotesque sadism that mankind is capable of and, in striking contrast, of the simplicity of good and the nobility of decency. Maybe everyone dies alone, but no one lives alone or in complete privacy, especially in a city choked with terror, suspicion and murder. ”

Latin America and the Caribbean have become the worst-affected region of the coronavirus in the world. Europe has the most victims

Latin America and the Caribbean became the region with the highest number of new coronavirus infections since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic on Sunday, with 4,340,214 cases, according to a report published by AFP at 21.00 GMT and drawn up on the basis of information obtained from official sources.

This is the first time that the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in this region has surpassed that of North America, which reported 4,330,989 cases, mainly in the United States, the worst-hit country in the world, with 4 , 2 million contaminations and almost 150,000 deaths, states Agerpres.

In Latin America, Brazil is the most affected country, with 2,394,513 cases and 86,449 victims. Increases in contamination have been seen in Mexico, Peru, Colombia and Argentina, which are trying to relaunch their economic activities to limit the impact of the pandemic.

In terms of the number of deaths, Europe remains in first place, with 207,933 victims, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean (182,726 deaths) and the United States and Canada (155,673 deaths).

According to an announcement made by the World Health Organization (WHO) in May, the American continent has become the new epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, after Europe.

Video: Αφράτο Κλασικό Κέικ Βανίλιας Η συνταγή που θα σας τη ζητάνε ΟΛΟΙ - Vanilla Cake Recipe (June 2022).


  1. Kishura

    Wacker, the brilliant phrase and is timely

  2. Wyndham

    Completely I share your opinion. It seems to me it is very good idea. Completely with you I will agree.

  3. Sigifrid

    I'm bored

  4. Taburer

    I, sorry, but that certainly does not suit me at all. Who else can breathe?

  5. Halig

    And this also happens :)

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