Traditional recipes

Leek and Ginger Matzo Balls in Lemongrass Consommé Recipe

Leek and Ginger Matzo Balls in Lemongrass Consommé Recipe


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Ingredients

Consommé

  • 2 3 3/4- to 4-pound chickens, quartered
  • 4 whole lemongrass stalks, halved lengthwise, cut into 3-inch pieces
  • 2 celery stalks, cut into 3-inch pieces
  • 2 garlic cloves, peeled, halved
  • Peel of 1 large lime, cut off in strips with vegetable peeler
  • 1 6- to 7-inch piece large leek (white and pale green parts only), halved lengthwise
  • 1 1-inch-long piece fresh ginger, peeled, halved
  • 1 tablespoon (or more) fresh lemon juice

Matzo balls

  • 1/3 cup finely chopped leek (white and pale green parts only)
  • 1/3 cup chicken fat (reserved from consommé or purchased), melted, cooled
  • 2 tablespoons chicken broth or club soda
  • 1 1/2 teaspoons coarse kosher salt
  • 1 teaspoon finely grated peeled fresh ginger
  • Pinch of freshly ground black pepper
  • 1 cup unsalted matzo meal

Recipe Preparation

Consommé

  • Place chicken in extra-large pot. Add next 7 ingredients, then enough cold water to cover (about 18 cups). Bring to boil over medium-high heat. Reduce heat to medium-low and simmer soup 2 hours, skimming impurities from surface. Let stand 30 minutes. Strain consommé into large saucepan. Boil until reduced to 8 cups, if necessary. Add 1 tablespoon lemon juice; season with salt and pepper. DO AHEAD Can be made 2 days ahead. Chill uncovered until cold, then cover and keep chilled (fat will form solid layer on top).

Matzo balls

  • Whisk 4 eggs in medium bowl. Mix in leek, chicken fat, broth, coarse salt, ginger, and pepper. Stir in matzo meal. Cover; chill at least 4 hours.

  • Using wet hands, shape generous 2 tablespoons matzo mixture into balls. Place on sheet of foil. Bring large pot of salted water to boil over high heat. Drop in matzo balls; cover pot. Reduce heat to low; simmer until matzo balls are cooked through, about 1 hour 10 minutes. Using slotted spoon, transfer matzo balls in single layer to shallow dish. DO AHEAD Can be made 1 day ahead. Cover and chill.

  • Rewarm consommé. Add more lemon juice by teaspoonfuls, if desired. Add matzo balls; simmer to reheat, 5 to 10 minutes. Divide matzo balls and consommé among 6 bowls. Garnish with chopped chives.

Nutritional Content

One serving contains the following: Calories (kcal) 261.4 %Calories from Fat 53.7 Fat (g) 15.6 Saturated Fat (g) 5.0 Cholesterol (mg) 156.1 Carbohydrates (g) 20.7 Dietary Fiber (g) 0.8 Total Sugars (g) 2.1 Net Carbs (g) 19.9 Protein (g) 10.4Reviews Section

Category: Recipes: Starters

I fermented apple peels with some flour and spring water. The first bubbles hap-pened pretty late because it was January, and our apartment is never really warm. The first bread was miserable and even today, the bread sometimes gives us unpleasant surprises. It is a living thing –it suffers from rain and sun – and even flowers around Hiša Franko and pollen in the air may change it completely. Breadmaking for me is one of the most fascinating and challenging moments of the kitchen. And it is also very rewarding.

1.8 l water
480 g sourdough starter
120 g honey
720 g roasted khorasan flour
1680 g strong (bread) flour
120 ml water
48g salt
oil, for spraying

Eight to 12 hours before making the dough prepare the starter. Mix 240 g of strong bread flour, 240 ml of lukewarm water and 100 g of active sourdough starter. Leave to double in volume and become bubbly, then use to mix the dough. Warm the water to 28oC (82oF). Pour into a mixing bowl, add the starter and mix by hand. Add the honey and whisk again. Weigh the flours and mix. Transfer to a stand mixer with a dough hook and mix for 5 minutes. Add the second amount of water and the salt. Mix for 5 minutes. Take out of the bowl and put in a plastic container sprayed with oil. The dough should be 24–26oC (70–75oF). Next leave the dough for the bulk fermentation.

In this period the dough should get stronger, puffed and airy and should also increase in the volume. In the first 2 hours of the bulk fermentation perform a series of stretch and fold (4 times in 30-45 minute intervals). This will help the dough gain strength.

To perform stretch and fold, grab the dough at 1 side, then pull it up and fold over itself. Repeat on 4 sides of the dough. Leave the dough to rise until it increases approximately 80 percent of the initial volume. Divide the loaves into 620 g each for 8 loaves. Pre- shape, then let rest for 20 minutes. Give them a final shape and place in floured rising baskets. Proof the loaves at the room temperature until the bread approximately doubles in volume and passes the poking test. Make an indent into the dough and observe the reaction –

the dough is done proofing when the indent comes to the initial position slowly. If it returns fast, leave the dough to rise longer. Bake for 20 minutes at 230oC (445oF), full steam and fan, and then for 30 minutes at 160oC (320oF) no steam or fan.


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Leek and Ginger Matzo Balls in Lemongrass Consommé Recipe - Recipes

A la king - An American dish consisting of diced foods, usually chicken or turkey, in a cream sauce flavored with pimientos, mushrooms, green peppers and sometimes sherry.

A la minut - Cooked to order.

A la mode - French for in the fashion or manner of. In the United States, a dessert item topped with a scoop of ice cream.

Abalone - A mollusk, related to a sea snail, similar in flavor to a clam. It may be cooked by various methods and is best suited to very long or very short cooking times. Also called "Awabi" in Japanese cuisine and "Loco" in South American cuisine.

Achar - A mixture of pickled fruits and vegetables.

Acidic - A sharp, sour or tart flavor. A wine-tasting term for a sharp, sour flavor caused by an abnormally high acid content.

Acidulated Water - A mixture of water and a small amount of vinegar or lemon juice, used to purify or prevent discoloration in meats and vegetables.

Adobo - Paste or sauce made from chiles, vinegar, and other seasonings. Used as a seasoning for meats.

Adzuki Beans - Small reddish brown beans.

Aerate - To dissolve air in a liquid or to expose a liquid to air. To add air to a food (e.g., sifting flour or beating egg whites).

Aging - The period during which a food product, meat or cheese is allowed to rest and mature.

Agnolotti - A small half-moon shaped ravioli.

Aiguillette - Long, thin slices of poultry breast or some other meats.

Ail - French word for garlic.

Aioli - A garlic mayonnaise made in France's Provence region it is used as a condiment or sauce.

Ajo - Spanish word for garlic.

Al Carbon - Spanish term for a dish relating to grilled or containing meat.

Al Dente - Italian for to the tooth and used to describe a food, usually pasta, that is cooked only until it gives a slight resistance when one bites into it the food is neither soft nor overdone.

Al Forno - Italian term describing a dish cooked in the oven.

Al Pastor - A term used in Spanish and Italian referring to a dish cooked in the style of shepherd cooking, usually over a grill or spit.

Albumen - The protein of egg whites.

Alfredo - A pasta sauce consisting of butter, cream, and parmesan cheese.

Allemande - A sauce made of Veloute (usually veal), a liaison and lemon juice.

Almond Paste - A sweet paste made from finely ground blanched almonds mixed with powdered sugar and enough glucose or syrup to bind it together.

Amandine - A French term for any dish with almonds. Alternate spelling is almondine.

Amaretto - An Italian amber-colored liqueur with an almond-like flavor, although it is actually flavored with apricot kernels it was originally made in Saronno and called Amaretto di Saronno.

Amchoor - Sour, unripe mangoes that are dried and sold in slices and powder. Its primary use is in Indian cooking, giving foods a sweet/sour flavor.

Amino Acid - The basic molecular component of proteins each of the approximately two dozen amino acids contains oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen atoms.

Flavor - To add seasonings or other ingredients to a food or beverage to improve, change or add to the taste. The distinctive taste of a food or beverage.

Flesh - When referring to fruits and vegetables, it is typically the edible area under the skin or other outer covering also known as the pulp. The muscles, fat and related tissues of an animal.

Gyro - A Greek dish consisting of spiced minced lamb molded around a spit and roasted vertically it is sliced, folded in a pita, and topped with grilled onions, sweet peppers, tomatoes and a cucumber-yogurt sauce marinated chicken is sometimes used instead of lamb.

Harissa - A spice mixture used as both a condiment and a seasoning. Harissa contains chiles which are ground with cumin, garlic, coriander, and olive oil. It becomes a thick paste that is used as is in cooking or diluted with oil or stock to be used as a condiment.

Habanero - A squat cylindrical chili with a dark green to orange skin that becomes red when mature and an exceptionally hot flavor also available dried.

Iago - A small British pastry or petit four.

Ibrik - A small, long-handled Turkish pot with a bulbous bottom, narrow waist and flared top.

Ice Bath - A mixture of ice and water used to chill a food or beverage rapidly.

Ice Chipper - A metal ice carving tool.

Ice Cream - A rich, frozen dessert made with dairy products, sugar, eggs and various flavorings the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires products labeled ice cream to contain at least 10% milkfat and 20% milk solids.

Ice Milk - A frozen dessert made with dairy products, sugar, eggs and flavoring similar to ice cream but made with less milkfat, sugar and milk solids.

Iceberg Lettuce - A variety of crisp head lettuce with a compact spherical head of pale green leaves that become whitish-yellow toward the center developed in the United States at the end of the 19th century.

Iced Coffee - A beverage of coffee, a sweetener and milk or cream served chilled with ice in a glass.

Icefish - See rainbow smelt.

Icelandic lobster - See Norway lobster.

Icing - A sweet covering or filling such as buttercream or ganache used for cakes and pastries also known as frosting.

Icing Stencil - A flat plastic disk with words and/or designs cut out of it it is pressed onto the cake top, leaving an indentation that provides a pattern to be followed when squeezing icing from a pastry bag.

Imitation Cheese - A dense, rubbery, cheeselike food product made from dairy by-products and soy products mixed with emulsifiers, flavoring agents and enzymes.

Immersion Blender - A small, narrow, handheld blender with a rotary blade at one end portable, it has variable speeds and can be immersed directly into a pot whisk attachments are available.

In Season - A menu term indicating that the product is readily available in its fresh state.

In The Rough - A lobster cooked whole and served in the shell, usually outdoors.

Individually Quick Frozen (IQF) - A preservation method in which each individual item of food (e.g., a slice of fruit, berry or fish) is rapidly frozen before packaging IQF foods are not packaged with syrup or sauce.

Induction Cooking - A cooking method that uses a special coil placed below the stove top's surface in combination with specially designed cookware to generate heat rapidly with an alternating magnetic field.

Infrared Cooking - A heating method that uses an electric or ceramic element heated to such a high temperature that it gives off waves of radiant heat that cook the food.

Infuse - To steep a seasoning or food in a hot liquid until the liquid absorbs the item's flavor.

Infusion - An infusion is the flavor that is extracted from any ingredient such as tea leaves, herbs or fruit by steeping them in a liquid such as water, oil or vinegar.

Instant - A processed food or a food from which water has been removed it is ready to use or consume once rehydrated with the appropriate amount liquid.

Instant Coffee - A powdered soluble extract made by heat-drying freshly brewed coffee.

Instant Read Thermometer - A thermometer used to measure the internal temperature of foods the stem is inserted in the food, producing an instant temperature readout.

Involtini - Thin slices of meat or fish which are stuffed and rolled. They may then be sauteed, grilled, or baked.

Iodine - A trace mineral somtimes added as a nutrient supplement, principally in table salt.

Iodized Salt - Table salt (sodium chloride) containing potassium iodide.

Iron - A trace mineral found in red meat, fish, shellfish, eggs, legumes and dried fruits as well as foods to which iron has been added as a nutrient supplement.

Italian Bread - An American term for a variety of chewy, hard-crusted yeast breas made with flour, water, yeast and salt.

Italian Buttercream - A creamy frosting made by beating softened butter into cooled Italian meringue also known as meringue buttercream.

Italian Dressing - A salad dressing consisting of olive oil and wine vinegar or lemon juice and seasoned with oregano, basil, dill, garlic and fennel.

Italian Meringue - A fluffy, shiny meringue made by slowly beating hot sugar syrup into whipped egg whites when used as a cake frosting, known as boiled icing.

Italian Parsley - A variety of parsley with flat, darker green leaves and a stronger, coarser flavor than curly parsley generally used fresh as a flavoring also known as flat-leaf parsley.

Italian Sausage - A style of pork sausages seasoned with garlic and fennel seeds available in medium-sized links, there are two principal types: hot (flavored with red chilies) and sweet (without the chilies).

Jalapeno - A short, tapering chili with a thick flesh, a moderately hot, green vegetal flavor and a dark green color (a red version is also available it is a green chili that has been allowed to ripen) available fresh or canned and named for the Mexican city of Jalapa.

Jam - A fruit gel made from fruit pulp and sugar.

Jambalaya - A Creole version of paella, though more highly spiced. The only consistent ingredients among all of the jambalaya recipes are rice, tomatoes, peppers, and onions. Ingredients used for jambalaya are ham, oysters, chicken, Andouille sausage, duck, shrimp, and game birds.

Jarlsberg - A Norwegian Emmental-style cheese made from cow's milk it has a pale yellow interior with large holes and a delicate, sweet, nutty flavor.

Jar, Mason - Glass containers with threaded necks made especially for home canning, pickling and preserving.

Jasmine Flowers - The aromatic white to pale yellow flowers of several jasmine shrubs or vines that can be used in fruit salads or as flavoring for ice creams and sorbets.

Jasmine Rice - A young, tender rice with a strong flowerlike aroma and a delicate flavor used in Thai and Vietnamese cuisines.

Jasmine Tea - A blend of Chinese black and green teas scented with jasmine petals the beverage is light and fragrant and best served without milk or lemon.

Jelly - A clear, shiny mixture of cooked fruit juice and sugar thickened with pectin its texture is soft but firm enough to hold its shape when unmolded used as a spread for bread or a glaze on pastries.

Jelly Roll Cake - A thin sheet of sponge cake spread with jam, jelly or other fillings, then rolled up the cake is cut crosswise into pinwheel slices.

Jelly Roll Pan - A rectangular baking sheet with 1-in. deep sides used for baking a thin cake.

Jerky - Thin strips of meat, usually beef or turkey, dried in the sun or an oven they typically have a salty flavor and a tough, chewy texture.

Jerusalem Artichoke - A tuber, also called sunchoke, with a very firm flesh and a flavor reminiscent of globe artichokes. These are used as a vegetable, in soups, or cooked and served in salads.

Jicama - A large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and white crunchy flesh. Its sweet, nutty flavor is good both raw and cooked. It is a fair source for vitamin C and potassium.

Jigger - A standard 1.5-fl. oz. measure used for mixed drink recipes, usually for the amount of liquor also known as a shot.

Johannisberg Riesling - The true Riesling wine grape grown in Germany the name is used in California to distinguish this grape from other varieties that are not true Rieslings also known as White Riesling (especially in Oregon and other states). A white wine made from this grape generally fruity, it can range from light and crisp to full bodied and rich.

Johnnycake - A griddle cake made of cornmeal, salt and boiling water or cold milk also known as a hoecake. Caribbean breakfast food made from flour, water, salt and baking powder, shaped into balls and fried.

Jonathan Apple - An all-purpose apple native to North America with a bright red skin, a tender flesh and a sweet-tart flavor.

Jug Wine - A wine, usually an inexpensive table wine of no particular character, sold in a large bottle such as a magnum.

Juice - To extract the juice of a fruit or vegetable. The liquid released or squeezed from any raw food, usually a fruit or vegetable.

Julep - A cocktail made from bourbon, sugar and mint served with finely crushed ice also known as a Mint Julep.

Julienne - Foods that are cut in long, thin strips. The term is usually associated with vegetables, but may be applied to cooked meat or fish.

Juniper Berry - The dried, aromatic, blue-black berry of an evergreen bush used to flavor gin and savory dishes also known as a box huckleberry.

Jun Jing - Chinese for dragon well and used to describe a very fine green tea from Chinkiang province the beverage is lightly colored and freshly flavored.

Jus - A rich, lightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are started by deglazing the roasting pan, then reduced to achieve the rich flavor desired.

Jus Lie - A sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch.

Kaffir Lime - A citrus fruit the aromatic, citrus-flavored leaves and the fruit's rind are used as flavorings in Thai cuisine, and the leaves are used in Indonesian cuisine.

Kahlua - A dark brown, coffee-flavored Mexican liqueur.

Kaiser Roll - A large, round yeast roll with a crisp crust, used for making sandwiches or served as a breakfast roll also known as a hard roll or Vienna roll.

Kalakukko - A Finnish dish of bread filled with fish.

Kalamata - A large blue-black olive native to Greece.

Kale - A member of the cabbage family with curly leaves arranged in a loose bunch the green varieties are good for cooking, and the more colorful varieties are better used for garnish.

Kebab - Also spelled kabob, these are skewers of marinated meat, fish, or vegetables grilled over a fire.

Kedgeree - A British variation of an Indian dish with rice, smoked fish, hard cooked eggs, and bechamel sauce flavored with curry. Finnan Haddie is most often used, but smoked sturgeon or salmon are excellent substitutes.

Kefir - A fermented milk drink flavored with salt or spices.

Ketchup - A spicy sauce or condiment usually made with the juice of cooked fruits or vegetables such as tomatoes, walnuts and mangos as well as vinegar, sugar and spices the name may be derived from the Chinese ke-tsiap, which means brine of pickled fish.

Kettle - A large metal pot with a lid and a wire loop handle, usually made of iron.

Key Lime - A small lime with a greenish-yellow skin and a very tart flavor also known as the Mexican lime, West Indies lime and true lime.

Key Lime Pie - A cream pie made with tart Key limes, usually in a graham cracker or cookie crumb crust and topped with whipped cream.

Kid - A goat slaughtered when approximately 6 months old the lean flesh has a tender texture and delicate flavor similar to that of lamb.

Kidney Bean - A medium-sized, kidney-shaped bean with a dark red skin, cream-colored firm flesh, and bland flavor available fresh, dried and canned also known as red kidney bean.

Kielbasa - A Polish sausage made from pork flavored with garlic smoked, usually precooked, and sold in medium to large links also known as Polish sausage.

King Crab - A variety of very large crab found off Alaska that can grow to 10 pounds the flesh is white with red edges, and has a sweet flavor and coarse texture also known as Alaskan king crab.

Kirsch - A clear brandy distilled from cherry juice and pits. In cookery, it is most prominently known as a flavorful addition to fondue and cherries jubilee.

Kitchen Shears - A pair of strong scissors used to cut fish, poultry, meat and produce.

Kiwi - A small, barrel-shaped fruit native to New Zealand it has a greenish-brown skin covered with fuzz, a brilliant green flesh that becomes yellower toward the center, many small, edible black seeds, and a sweet-tart flavor named for the flightless bird of New Zealand also known as the Chinese gooseberry.

Knead - To work a dough by hand or in a mixer to distribute ingredients and develop gluten.

Knife - A sharp-edged instrument used to cut or spread food it generally consists of a blade and handle.

Knockwurst - A plump German sausage made from beef and pork and seasoned with garlic.

Kobe Beef - Beef from cattle raised in Kobe, Japan the cattle, massaged with sake and fed a diet that includes large amounts of beer, produce meat that is tender and full flavored.

Kolacky Kolachke - A small, sweet, flaky Polish pastry made with either a yeast dough or cream cheese dough, filled with poppy seeds, jam, nuts or crushed fruit.

Kombu (Konbu) - A large edible seaweed used in Japanese cooking.

Kosher - A food prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary laws.

Kosher Salt - Purified coarse rock salt approved for use on kosher meats.

Kringle - A multilayered Christmas pastry filled with fruit or nuts it is flat, wide and very flaky. A buttery, lemon-flavored Christmas cookie.

K'sra - A Moroccan round loaf bread made with a sourdough-type starter and a mix of whole wheat, barley and unbleached flours and garnished with caraway seeds.

Kuchen - Yiddish for something baked and used to describe a yeast dough pastry studded with nuts and raisins and topped with streusel.

Kugelhopf - A yeast cake from Alsace baked in a large crown-like earthenware dish. It is similar to brioche, though less rich, and flavored with currants or golden raisins and almonds. This is mainly eaten for breakfast.

Kumquat - A very small citrus fruit with a soft, thin, golden orange rind, and orange flesh with small seeds, and a tart flavor the entire fruit is eaten fresh or used for preserves and pickles.

Lactose - Lactose is a sugar that is found most notably in milk.

La Cuite -A thick, dark sugar syrup cooked until just before it burns and turns bitter it is used in the American South as a candy, a topping for bread or in baked goods.

L adle - To move portions of a food using a ladle. A utensil with a cuplike bowl and a long hooked or pierced handle and available in various sizes used to pour sauces and liquids.

Ladyfinger - A flat, finger-shaped cookie made from a light, sponge cake batter used as a petit four or to line a pan or mold for desserts.

Lamb - The meat of a sheep slaughtered when less than 1 year old it is generally tender and has a mild flavor also known as a yearling.

Lamb Chop - A fabricated cut of the lamb primal rack it usually contains one rib (called a single chop) or two ribs (a double chop) and the flavorful, tender rib eye muscle.

Lambrusco - A red wine grape grown in Italy. A lightly sparkling and somewhat sweet red wine made from this grape.

Lamination - The technique of layering fat and dough through a process of rolling and folding this procedure is used to make puff pastry, croissant dough and Danish pastry dough.

Langouste - The French name for the spiny lobster, differentiating from Maine lobsters in that they have no claws. Langoustes are warm water crustaceans that can be found in the south Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and off the coasts of South America, Australia and the West Indies.

Langoustine - The French name for Dublin prawn. These are small pink crustaceans resembling crayfish, with a taste and texture closest to lobster. Their claws are quite long but have no edible meat in them. Like the langouste, these are found in warm waters.

L ard - Clarified and purified pork fat used as an ingredient and cooking medium it is very rich.

Larding - A technique by which thin strips of back fat, or vegetables, are inserted into a piece of meat. These strips help the meat to remain juicy during cooking.

Lardon - Diced, blanched, fried bacon.

Lasagna - Wide, flat Italian pasta sheets with ruffled or smooth edges. An Italian dish made with boiled lasagna layered with cheese (usually ricotta and mozzarella) and meats and/or vegetables and topped with a tomato, meat and/or a bechamel sauce and baked.

L assi - A frothy yogurt drink, sweet or salty, flavored with pistachios, cardamom, cumin, or rose water.

Late Harvest - A wine (usually from California) made from very ripe grapes or ones affected by the noble rot generally a sweet white wine made from Johannisberg Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc or Chenin Blanc grapes.

Lattice - Strips of pastry dough arranged in a crisscross pattern, usually laid on top of a pie or tart.

Lattice Cutter - A plastic or metal stencil used to cut a diamond-shaped lattice pattern into rolled-out dough. A rolling cutter with a 6-in. wide axle holding several notched cutting wheels used to cut a uniform lattice pattern in rolled-out dough also known as lattice dough roller.

Lavender - An herb with spikes of aromatic purple flowers and gray-green leaves, principally used for the strong fragrance of its essential oils the flowers have a sweet, lemony flavor and are also used fresh in Middle Eastern and French cuisines or crystallized and used as a garnish, especially for baked goods.

Lavender Honey - A thick, deep golden-colored honey with a strong, perfumed flavor principally made from lavender blossoms in France's Provence region.

Layer Cake - Any cake with two or more layers of cake product joined with an icing or filling the layers may be baked separately or as one large layer that is sliced horizontally into thinner layers after baking.

Leading Sauces - Also known as mother sauces, the foundation for the entire classic repertoire of hot sauces the five leading sauces (bechamel, veloute, espagnole (also known as brown sauce), tomato and hollandaise) are distinguished by the liquids and thickeners used to make them they can be seasoned and garnished to create a wide variety of small or compound sauces.

Lean - A food-labeling term approved by the FDA to describe meat, poultry, game, fish or shellfish that contains less than 10 g. of fat, less than 4 g. of saturated fat and less than 95 mg. of cholesterol per serving or per 100 g.

Leaven - To increase the volume of a dough or batter by adding air or other gas.

Leavening Agent - A substance used to leaven a dough or batter it may be natural (air or steam), chemical (baking powder or baking soda) or biological (yeast).

Lecithin - A natural emulsifier found in egg yolks.

Leek - A member of the lily family it has a thick, cylindrical, white stalk with a slightly bulbous root end and many flat, dull dark green leaves the tender white stalk has a flavor that is sweeter and stronger than that of a scallion but milder than that of an onion and is used in salads and as a flavoring.

Lefse - A thin, flat potato pancake, about the consistency of a tortilla and cooked by similar method.

Legumes - A large group of plants that have double-seamed pods containing a single row of seeds depending on the variety, the seeds, the pod and seeds together or the dried seeds are eaten.

Lemon - A citrus fruit with a bright yellow skin, an oval shape with a bulge at the blossom end, a juicy yellow flesh and a very tart, distinctive flavor.

Lemon Curd - A soft, thick custard made from lemon juice, sugar, eggs and butter used to fill tarts and cakes and as a spread for sweet breads and scones.

Lemongrass - A tropical grass with long, greenish stalks and serrated leaves the white to pale green inner stalks have a strong lemonlike flavor and aroma and are used fresh in Southeast Asian cuisines also known as citronella grass.

Lemon Grater - A grater with a flat or slightly convex grating surface with fine teeth used to remove the zest from citrus fruit.

Lemon Oil -The oil obtained from the lemon it is used as a flavoring agent, especially in reconstituted lemon juice.

Lemon Verbena - An herb with light green pointed leaves and white or lilac blossoms it has a strong lemonlike flavor and aroma.

Lentils - The small flat seeds of a variety of legumes sold shelled, dried or cooked.

Lettuce, Head - A general name for any lettuce with leaves that grow in a moderately loose to dense rosette the two principal categories of head lettuce are butterhead and crisp head.

Lettuce, Leaf - Any variety of lettuce whose ruffle-edged leaves are loose rather than bunched in a head and have a mild flavor also known as looseleaf lettuce.

Liaison - A binder or thickening agent.

Licorice - A feathery-leafed plant grown in Europe and Asia its dried root and an extract taken from the root have a distinctive, sweet flavor similar to that of anise or fennel used as a flavoring in candies, confections, baked goods and beverages. A candy flavored with licorice extract, usually colored red or black.

Light - A food-labeling term approved by the FDA to describe a nutritionally altered food with at least 33% fewer calories, 50% less fat or 50% less sodium than the regular or reference food. A wine-tasting term for a wine that is neither full bodied nor heavy.

Lima Bean - A flat, kidney-shaped bean native to Peru it has a pale green color that becomes creamy yellow as it matures and a waxy texture available fresh, dried, canned or frozen the mature bean is also known as the butter bean and calico bean.

Lime - An oval citrus fruit with a thin, green skin smaller than a lemon, it has a juicy, pale green pulp and a very tart flavor.

Limequat - A hybrid of the lime and kumquat a small citrus fruit with a pale yellow-green rind, a yellowish flesh and a sharp, fragrant flavor, the entire fruit is eaten or used in preserves.

Limon - A citrus fruit native to Mexico and the American Southwest similar to a lemon, it is traditionally served with tequila drinks.

Limousin Beef - A breed of cattle which is naturally lower in fat and cholestrol. These cattle were brought to the United States from France around 1930.

Linguine - Long, oval shaped pasta noodles. Hand cut versions of this are very narrow flat noodles.

Linzertorte - An Austrian pastry comprised of a short crust dough flavored with ground almonds and hazelnuts, cinnamon, and lemon zest. This is then spread with raspberry jam and topped with a cross-hatch of dough. Almond paste is sometimes layered underneath the raspberry jam. Other versions of this use fresh cranberries or apricots in the filling.

Liqueur - A strong sweet drink made from a distilled spirit base sweetened, flavored and sometimes colored with fruits and aromatics it generally has a high alcohol content, and is sometimes aged often consumed after a meal or used as an ingredient in a cocktail also known as a cordial.

Liquidize - To reduce a food to a liquid in a blender or food processor.

Liquid Smoke -A basting or flavoring ingredient with an artificial smoky flavor and aroma.

Liquor - A potable liquid containing ethyl alcohol generally used to refer only to distilled spirits. The liquid or juice found in oysters.

Liter - The measure for volume in the metric system.

Littleneck Clam - An Atlantic hard-shell clam that is under 2 in. across the shell the shells are tannish-gray and the chewy meat has a mild flavor often served on the half shell.

Liverwurst - Any of several varieties of seasoned sausages made from pork meat and pork liver the texture can be semi-firm to soft available smoked or cooked in links, loaves and slices.

Loaf - A shaped mass of bread baked in one piece, usually rounded or oblong. Other food cooked in a loaf pan.

Lobster - Any of several varieties of crustaceans found in saltwater areas worldwide generally, they have a jointed body and limbs encased in a reddish-brown to blue-black shell, a large tail, large front claws, and a firm white flesh with a rich, sweet flavor significant varieties include the Maine lobster, Norway lobster and spiny lobster.

Lobster Mushroom - A wild mushroom that has a firm texture and a red and orange color like lobster shells.

Lobster Thermidor - A dish of lobster meat bound with a béchamel sauce flavored with white wine, shallots, tarragon and mustard and returned to the shells it is sprinkled with Parmesan and broiled or covered with a Mornay sauce and glazed under the broiler.

London Broil - A fabricated cut of the beef primal flank it is a flank steak that is lean and somewhat tough.

Longhorn - A Cheddar-style cheese made in Wisconsin it has an orange color and a mild flavor available in rectangles, cylinders and half-moons.

Lozenges - Diamond-shaped pieces, usually of firm vegetables.

Lutefisk - A Norweigan fish dish of dried cod .

Lychee - A small fruit from China and the West indies, with a hard shell and sweet, juicy flesh.

Lyonnaise, à la - A French term for “in the manner of Lyons.” Dishes include onions which have been cooked golden brown and seasoned with wine, garlic, and parsley.

Lyonnaise Sauce - A classic French sauce preparation made with sauteed onions, white wine and demi-glace. The sauce is strained before being served with meats and sometime poultry.

Macadamia - The nut of an Australian evergreen tree shaped like a small marble, the nut has a very rich, buttery, slightly sweet flavor and a high fat content because of the extremely hard shell, it is usually available shelled and raw or roasted also known as Queensland nut.

Macaire - A potato pancake made with seasoned potato puree.

Macaroni - Dried pasta made from a dough of wheat flour and water. In the United States, short, elbow-shaped tubes of pasta.

Macaroon - A small round cookie that has a crisp crust and a soft interior. These cookies may be made from almonds, though coconut is common in the US. They may also be flavored with coffee, chocolate, or spices. Amaretti, from Italy, are a type of macaroon.

Mace - The lacy, reddish-orange outer covering of the nutmeg seed it is used ground as a spice it has a flavor and an aroma similar to those of nutmeg but is milder and more refined.

Macedoine - A mixture of fruit or vegetables. Vegetable macedoine are cut into small dice and used as a garnish to meats. Fruit macedoine are cut in larger pieces and often marinated in sugar syrup with liqueur.

Macerate - To soak foods in a liquid, usually alcoholic, to soften them.

Madeira - A Portuguese fortified white wine similar to a sherry.

Madeleine - A French sponge cake baked in a small, shell-shaped mold and eaten as a cookie, especially with tea or coffee.

Magret - The breast meat from a mallard or Barbary duck. These ducks are specially raised for foie gras. Their breasts are large and have a much thinner layer of fat than do the Peking or Long Island duckling.

Maine Lobster - A variety of lobster found off New England it has a brown to blue-black shell, large claws, and a firm white flesh with an exceptionally rich, sweet flavor.

Maitre d Hotel Butter - This is the most common of all the compound butters. It is flavored with lemon and chopped parsley and used to garnish fish and grilled meats. Garlic may be added, but it would then be called escargot butter.

Maltaise, Sauce - A French compound sauce made from a hollandaise blended with Maltese orange juice and grated Maltese orange rind used with vegetables, especially asparagus and green beans.

Mancha - The highest grade of Spanish saffron.

Manchego - A firm Spanish cheese made from ewe's milk it has a golden color and a full, mellow flavor two versions are generally available: Manchego Curado, which is aged for 3-4 months, and the longer-aged Manchego Viejo.

Mandarin - Any of several varieties of a small citrus fruit native to China, including the mandarin, dancy, tangerine, clementine and satsuma.

Mandoline - A manually operated slicer with adjustable blades it has a narrow, rectangular body holding a blade and pressed against the blade to obtain uniform slices, matchstick shapes or waffle cuts.

Mango - A medium- to large-sized tropical fruit native to India it has an oval shape with a slight ridge on one side and a point at one end the skin can be yellow or orange with a red blush, greenish-yellow, or golden yellow the flesh, which is golden orange, encases a large, flat seed and has a sweet, resinous flavor.

Manicotti - Italian for muffs and used to describe long, wide pasta tubes they are usually boiled, stuffed with a meat or cheese mixture, covered with a sauce and baked.

Maple Syrup - A reddish-brown liquid with a sweet distinctive flavor, it is made by reducing the sap of the North American maple tree.

Maraschino Cherry - A cherry marinated in Maraschino liqueur and used for garnishing cocktails, desserts and baked goods. A pitted cherry macerated in a flavored sugar syrup and dyed red or green it is used for the same purposes as a maraschino cherry marinated in Maraschino liqueur.

Marble Cake - A moist, buttery cake made by swirling vanilla and chocolate batters together to create a marble-like pattern.

Marble Slab - A large, smooth piece of marble used for rolling out doughs and working with chocolate and sugar it is useful because marble stays cool and does not absorb moisture.

Marbling - The whitish streaks of inter- and intramuscular fat found in muscles it adds to the meat's flavor and tenderness and is a principal factor in determining its quality grade.

Marengo - A chicken stew made with wine, tomatoes, and garlic. The stew is served over toast, garnished with crayfish and fried eggs.

Margarine - A butter substitute made from animal or vegetable fats or a combination of such fats mixed with flavorings, colorings, emulsifiers, preservatives and vitamins and firmed through hydrogenation like butter, it is approximately 80% fat and 16% water also known as oleo.

Margarita - A cocktail made of tequila, lime juice and an orange-flavored liqueur traditionally served in a glass that has had its rim dipped in lime juice and then coated with salt.

Marinade - A seasoned liquid, usually containing an acid, herbs and/or spices, in which raw foods (typically meat, poultry, fish, shellfish or vegetables) are soaked or coated to absorb flavors and become tender before cooking or serving.

M arinara - An Italian pasta sauce made from tomatoes, garlic, onions and oregano.

Marjoram - An herb and member of the mint family native to the Mediterranean region it has short, oval, pale green leaves, a sweet flavor reminiscent of thyme and oregano and a strong aroma also known as sweet marjoram and knotted marjoram.

Marlborough Pie - An applesauce custard pie flavored with nutmeg and sherry.

Marmalade - A citrus jelly that also contains unpeeled slices of citrus fruit.

Marrying - The process or concept of combining (serving or cooking) foods with complementary or contrasting flavors, aromas, textures, shapes and/or colors to achieve a more balanced or interesting flavor, dish or presentation. The process or concept of combining (serving) foods with a specific wine to achieve a complementary or contrasting flavor combination. The process or concept of mixing together different grape varieties in a must to obtain a better balance of body, aroma, acidity and flavor in the resulting wine.

M arsala - An Italian fortified white wine made from Catarratto, Grillo and Inzolia grapes it has an amber to brown color and is available in three styles: fine (the sweetest), mosto cotto (with a caramelized flavor) and superiore (the driest, aged for at least 2 years in casks.

Marshmallow - A perennial herb with a yellow, branched root, a leafy stem with toothed leaves and white or pinkish flowers the leaves and flowers are used for medicinal, ornamental and culinary purposes the root has a slightly sweet flavor and is cooked like a root vegetable the mucilage from the roots was used to make the spongy sweets known as marshmallows. A light, spongy confection made with egg whites, corn syrup and gum arabic or gelatin and formed into a small pillow-shaped candy.

Marzipan - An almond paste with the addition of egg whites. This mixture is kneaded into a smooth paste and used to wrap or layer cakes and candies. Marzipan is also shaped into figures of animals, fruits, and vegetables, and sold in pastry or candy shops.

Masa - Spanish for dough. A Mexican dough made of dried corn kernels that have been soaked and cooked in lime water.

Masa Harina - Spanish for dough flour. Flour made by grinding dried masa dough used in Mexican and U.S. cuisines for breads, tortillas, tamales and other foods.

Masala - Hindi for spice, spices, spice blend and blend of seasonings.

Mascarpone - A soft, double or triple cream cheese made in Switzerland and Italy's Lombardy and Tuscany regions from cow's milk it has an ivory color and a sweet, slightly acidic flavor and is often blended with either sweet or savory flavorings.

Mason Jar - Glass containers with threaded necks made especially for home canning, pickling and preserving.

Matafan - A thick pancake eaten sweet as a snack, or savory as an accompaniment to cheese. They are also made with bacon, spinach, and potatoes.

Matelote - A French fish stew made with wine. The Alsatian version of this dish is made with freshwater fish, Riesling wine, and thickened with cream and egg yolks. The Normandy version includes seafood and is flavored with cider and Calvados. These stews are normally embellished with pearl onions and mushrooms.

Matjes Herring - A reddish herring that has been skinned and filleted before being cured in a spiced sugar-vinegar brine.

Matzo Matzoh - A thin, brittle, unleavened bread made with only water and flour and traditionally eaten during the Jewish Passover holiday it can be ground into meal and used for matzo balls, pancakes and other dishes.
Maui Onion - A large onion with a golden yellow outer layer, a moist white flesh and a mild, sweet flavor grown in the delimited area of Maui, Hawaii.

Mayonnaise - A cold, thick, creamy sauce consisting of oil and vinegar emulsified with egg yolks used as a spread or base for a salad dressing or dip.

McIntosh Apple - A medium-sized apple with red-striped green or yellow skin, a soft, juicy flesh and a sweet-tart flavor and all-purpose apple, it tends to fall apart when cooked.

Mealy - Having a texture similar to meal: dry, grainy, crumbly, powdery and/or soft.

Meat Grinder Meat Mincer - A tool used to grind meat the meat is placed in a hopper and forced through a rotating blade, then through a perforated disk (various sizes are available) and extruded manual or electric, it can be fitted with attachments.

Meatloaf - A loaf-shaped mixture of ground meat or poultry, seasonings and usually onions, bound with bread crumbs and/or eggs and baked served hot or cold.

Meat Pounder - A metal tool used for flattening and tenderizing meat it has a flat, broad face.

Meat Tenderizer - A preparation of enzymes applied to meat before cooking to help break down connective tissues unlike a marinade which can contain a meat tenderizer, it is not intended to add flavor.

Medallion - A small, round piece of meat or fish.

Melba, Peach - The name of a popular dessert invented by Auguste Escoffier. Poached peach halves are served with vanilla ice cream and topped with fresh raspberry sauce.

Melba Toast - Very thin slices of white bread baked in a low oven until golden brown and very crisp.

Melon Baller - A tool used to scoop evenly sized round balls from melons or other foods available with a single scoop on a handle or a handle with a scoop at either end, one larger than the other.

Melting - The process by which certain foods, especially those high in fat, gradually soften and then liquefy when heated.

Meringue - A mixture of stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar depending on the ratio of sugar to egg whites, a meringue may be soft (used as a fluffy topping for pies or cakes) or hard (baked into crisp cookies, disks or shells for use in pastries and desserts).

Meringue Powder - A fine, white powder made with dried egg whites, sugar and gum used to replace fresh egg whites when making icings and meringues.

Merlot - A red wine grape grown in France, Italy, California and other regions it is often used as a blending grape with Cabernet to add softness, fruit and suppleness. A red wine made from this grape it is generally soft, with a dark, rich color and an earthy, fruity flavor.

Mesclun - A mixture of several kinds of salad greens, especially baby lettuces although there is no set standard, the mixture usually includes baby red romaine, endive, mache, oak leaf, radicchio and arugula, among others.

Mesquite - A hardwood tree native to the American Southwest and Mexico when burned for cooking or smoking foods, it imparts a distinctive aroma and a slightly sweet flavor.


Meter - The basic measure of length in the metric system 1 m equals 39.37 in.

Mexican Coffee - A cocktail made of tequila, Kahlua or sugar syrup and strong hot black coffee served in a large mug and garnished with whipped cream.

Mexican Wedding Cookies - Small, round, buttery cookies made with ground nuts and rolled in confectioners' sugar after baking also known as Russian tea cakes.

Mezzaluna - A two-handled knife with one or more thick, crescent-shaped blades used to chop or mince vegetables also known as a mincing knife.

Microwave Cooking - A heating method that uses radiation generated by a special oven to penetrate the food it agitates water molecules, creating friction and heat this energy then spreads throughout the food by conduction.

Migas – A Spanish dish consisting of small squares of bread soaked in milk and fried in oil. Spanish for bread crumbs.

Mignonette - This is a term used to describe coarsely ground pepper used for au poivre preparations and in bouquet garni. This is also used to describe small round pieces of meat or poultry.

Milanese - This is used to describe foods that are dipped in egg and bread crumbs, sometimes parmesan cheese, and fried in butter.

Milano - A soft Bel Paese-style cheese made in Lombardy, Italy, from cow's milk also known as Bella Milano.

Milk, Sweetened Condensed - A thick, sweet, slightly caramel-flavored milk product made from sweetened whole milk from which 60% of the water has been evaporated usually sold canned, it cannot generally be substituted for whole or evaporated milk because of the sugar also known as condensed milk.

Milk Chocolate - Sweetened chocolate containing not less than 12% milk solids and not less than 10% chocolate liquor used for candies, creams and confections.

Mill - To grind, pulverize or break down into smaller particles.

Mille -Feuille - Small rectangular pastries made of crisp layers of puff pastry and pastry cream. This may also include savory fillings of similar presentation. The word mille-feuille means a thousand leaves.

Mimosa - A cocktail made of equal parts orange juice and sparkling wine, served cold.

Mince - To cut or chop a food finely.

Mincemeat - A rich, finely chopped mixture of dried fruit, nuts, beef suet, spices and rum or brandy used as a filling for pies, tarts and cookies traditionally, lean meat was included in the mixture.

Minestrone - Italian for big soup and used to describe a vegetable soup flavored with herbs and sometimes garnished with pasta there are variations made with rice, bacon, tomatoes, sage and cheese, with navy beans and with beans, sauerkraut, potatoes, cumin seeds and garlic.

Mint - A large family of herbs known for their aromatic foliage, many of which have flavors and/or aromas reminiscent of fruits and other flavorings. A candy flavored with mint, often used as a breath freshener it can be a hard candy or a soft patty with a hard candy or chocolate coating.

Mirepoix - A mixture of coarsley chopped onions, carrots and celery used to flavor stocks, stews and other foods generally, a mixture of 50% onions, 25% carrots and 25% celery, by weight, is used.

Mirin - A non-alcoholic version of sake/rice wine. It is sweet and syrupy.

Mise En Place - French for putting in place and used to describe the preparation and assembly of all necessary ingredients and equipment for cooking.

Miso - A thick paste made by salting and fermenting soybeans and rice or barley and then inoculating the mixture with yeast it is used in Japanese cuisines as a flavoring and thickener the lighter the color, the sweeter the flavor.

Mission Fig - A fig with a purple-black skin it was brought to California by Franciscan missionaries from Spain also known as a black Mission fig.

Mix - To combine ingredients in such a way that they are evenly dispersed throughout the mixture. A commercially packaged mixture of ingredients that usually requires only the addition of a liquid and/or a fresh product such as eggs, meat or fish and heating to produce a completed dish.

Mocha - A flavor created by combining coffee and chocolate, widely used in pastries and confections.

Mocktail - A cocktail prepared without the customary alcoholic beverages also known as a virgin drink.

Modeling Chocolate - A stiff dough made with melted chocolate and glucose or corn syrup it is used for creating pastry decorations and garnishes.

Moist-Heat Cooking Methods - Cooking methods, principally simmering, poaching, boiling and steaming, that use water or steam to transfer heat through convection moist-heat cooking methods are used to emphasize the natural flavors of foods.

Mojo Criollo - A citrus and herb marinade used in Latino cuisines several bottled brands are available from Hispanic markets.

Molasses - A thick, sweet, brownish-black liquid that is a by-product of sugar refining used in breads, cookies and pastries for its distinctive, slightly bitter flavor and dark color.

Molasses, Blackstrap - A molasses removed after the third boiling of the sugarcane in the sugar-refining process darker, thicker and less sweet than light molasses, it is generally used as a flavoring.

Mold - To shape a food by using a vessel. A vessel into which foods are placed to take on the container's shape molds are available in a wide range of shapes and sizes, many of which are associated with a particular dish.

Mole - A Mexican sauce usually served with poultry it consists of onions, garlic, chilies, ground pumpkin or sesame seeds and Mexican chocolate.

Mollusks - One of the principal classes for shellfish they are characterized by a soft, unsegmented body with no internal skeleton includes univalves, bivalves and cephalopods.

Monkey Bread - A sweet yeast bread made by piling small balls of dough in a tube pan raisins, nuts, sugar and cinnamon are usually added, and then the dough is allowed to rise after baking, the mounds can be pulled apart for service.

Monosodium Glutamate - A sodium salt found in wheat, beets, and soy bean products. It is used extensively in Chinese cookery, and thought to help accentuate the flavors of foods.

Monterey Jack - A cooked and pressed cheese traditionally made in Monterey, California, from whole, skimmed or partly skimmed cow's milk it has an ivory color, a semisoft texture and a rather bland flavor (varieties flavored with peppercorns, spices, herbs or jalapenos are available) it is high in moisture and melts easily also known as Jack or California Jack, especially if not produced near Monterey.

Monter Au Beurre - To finish a sauce by swirling or whisking in butter (raw or compound) until it is melted used to give sauces shine, flavor and richness.

Montrachet - A soft cheese made in France's Burgundy region from goat's milk it has a creamy texture and a mild, tangy flavor usually sold in white logs, sometimes covered with a gray, salted ash.

Moo Goo Gai Pan - A Chinese dish of boneless chicken stir-fried with mushrooms and flavored with garlic and ginger.

Moon Pie - The proprietary name for a confection that consists of two large, round, flat cookies with a marshmallow filling and chocolate or other flavored coating.

Mopping Sauce - Liquids brushed on meat during barbecuing to add flavor and moisture.

Mornay Sauce - A French sauce made by adding grated cheese to a basic white sauce served with fish, shellfish, vegetables and chicken.

Mortadella - Large, lightly smoked sausages made of pork, beef, or veal. These are specialties of Bologna, which is where the US version of this sausage gets its name.

Mortadella is a very smooth, pink sausage with a subtle creamy texture. They are studded with cubes of pork fat and peppercorns.

Mortar and Pestle - A tool, usually made of stone, wood or ceramic, used for grinding foods the bat-shaped pestle presses and rotates the food against the sides of the bowl-shaped mortar.

Mostarda di Cremona - These are fruits cooked and marinated in a spicy, mustard flavored syrup.

Moussaka - A layered dish of eggplant and lamb with tomatoes and onions. This is all bound with bechamel sauce and cooked au gratin.

Mousse - French for foam. French for the head that forms on sparkling wine or beer. A soft, creamy food, either sweet or savory, lightened by adding whipped cream, beaten egg whites or both.

Mousseline - A delicately flavored forcemeat based on white meat, fish or shellfish lightened with cream and egg whites. A sauce or cream lightened by folding in whipped cream.

Mousseron Mushroom - A wild mushroom with an off-white to beige color. The flavor is full-bodied and the texture is fleshy like bolets.

Mozzarella - A southern Italian cheese, originally made from water buffalo's milk but now also from cow's milk it has a white color and a mild, delicate flavor used mostly for cooking. An American version usually made from cow's milk it is drier and stringier than the fresh water buffalo's milk variety and becomes very elastic when melted also known as pizza cheese.

Mud Pie - A dessert that consists of a chocolate cookie crust filled with chocolate, vanilla and coffee ice cream and drizzled with chocolate sauce.

Muenster - Munster cheese produced in the United States or other areas outside France's Alsace region it has a light yellow interior, an orange rind and a bland flavor.

Muesli - A breakfast cereal made from raw or toasted cereal grains, dried fruits, nuts and dried milk solids and usually eaten with milk or yogurt sometimes known as granola.

Muffin - A tender quick bread baked in small, cup-shaped pans the batter is often flavored with nuts or fruit. In Great Britain, a small yeast-leavened product baked on a griddle.

Muffuletta - A New Orleans hero-style sandwich consisting of a round loaf of Italian bread that is split and filled with layers of provolone, salami and ham and topped with a mixture of chopped green olives, pimientos, celery, garlic, capers, oregano, olive oil and red wine vinegar.

Mull - To heat a beverage such as wine, cider or beer with herbs, spices, fruit and sugar and serve it hot.

Mulled Cider - A beverage made of hot apple cider, brown sugar, allspice berries, cloves, cinnamon and dried apple rings.

Mulligan Stew - A stew of various meats, potatoes and vegetables.

Mulligatawny - A curried chicken soup adapted by the British from India. Originally the soup was enriched with coconut milk and embellished with almonds and apples. Newer versions make a lighter broth and flavor this with curry and coconut.

Munster - A semisoft cheese made in France's Alsace region from cow's milk it has a smooth, yellow interior with small holes, a red or orange rind and a flavor that ranges from mild when young to assertive when old.

Muscat - A grape grown throughout the Mediterranean region, California and Australia and used for eating out of hand, raisins and wine making. A wine made from this grape it can range from pale, delicate, fruity and low in alcohol to dark amber, sweet and fortified.

Mushrooms - Any of many species of cultivated or wild fleshy fungus, usually consisting of a stem, cap and mycelium available fresh or dried and eaten raw, reconstituted or cooked.

Muskmelon - A category of melons characterized by a dense, fragrant flesh, a central fibrous seed cavity, a hard rind that can be netted or smooth, rind colors that include ivory, yellow, lime green and salmon also known as sweet melon.

Musli - A breakfast cereal made from raw or toasted cereals, dried fruits, nuts, bran, wheat germ, sugar and dried milk solids and usually eaten with milk or yogurt sometimes imprecisely known as granola.

Mussels - Any of several varieties of bivalve mollusks found in the shallow waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and Mediterranean Sea they generally have a dark blue shell with a violet interior, an average length of 2-3 in. and tough meat with a slightly sweet flavor significant varieties include blue mussels and green shell mussels.

Mustard, American - A smooth, somewhat runny prepared mustard made from white or yellow mustard seeds, sugar, vinegar and turmeric it has a mild, slightly sharp flavor and a bright yellow color also known as ballpark mustard.

Mustard, Ground - A blend of finely ground mustard seeds it has a bright yellow color also known as powdered mustard and dry mustard.

Mustard, Whole Grain - A coarse prepared mustard made from ground and slightly crushed whole mustard seeds it has a hot, earthy, nutty flavor.

Mustard Greens - The large, dark green leaves of the mustard plant they have a peppery, pungent flavor.

M ustard Seeds - The seeds of three different varieties of mustard plants all are small, hard spheres with a bitter flavor and no aroma white and yellow seeds have the mildest flavor, and black seeds have the strongest flavor brown seeds are moderately hot and generally have their husks attached fine to coarsely ground mustard seeds are used for the condiment prepared mustard or as a spice.

Mutton - The meat of sheep slaughtered after they reac h the ag e of one year.

Nacho - A Mexican and American Southwest snack of a crisp tortilla or tortilla chips topped with melted cheese and chiles, sometimes with salsa, sour cream, refried beans or other garnishes.

N age - An aromatic broth in which crustaceans are cooked. The shellfish is then served with this broth. The most notable of these dishes is lobster la nage.

Nantua - A name given to dishes containing crayfish. This includes crayfish tails and sauces made with a crayfish fumet.

Napa Cabbage - A member of the cabbage family with a stout, elongated head of relatively tightly packed, firm, crinkly, pale yellow-green leaves with a thick white center vein and a mild, delicate flavor also known as chard cabbage. Chinese cabbage and snow cabbage.

Napa Valley - A grape-growing and wine-producing region located in Napa County, near San Francisco, that incorporates nearly the entire county the principal grapes grown are Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay and, to a lesser extent, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Johannisberg Riesling, Zinfandel and Chenin Blanc.

Napoleon - A French pastry made with rectangular sheets of puff pastry layered with pastry cream, whipped cream and fruit or chocolate ganache, the top is then dusted with powdered sugar or coated with fondant glaze also known as mille-feuille.

Nappe - To coat food with sauce. The consistency of a liquid, usually a sauce, that will coat the back of a spoon.

Nasturtium - An annual or perennial herb. The leaves have a peppery flavor and can be used like watercress the yellow-to rust colored flowers also have a peppery flavor and can be used in salads, as a flavoring or garnish, and the immature flower buds can be pickled and used like capers.

Navarin - French stew made with mutton or lamb and onions, turnips, potatoes, and herbs.

Navel Orange - A variety of large orange with a thick, bright orange rind, an orange meaty flesh, a sweet, citrusy flavor and few if any seeds.

Navy Bean - A variety of kidney bean small and oval with a white skin and flesh a staple of the U.S. Navy since the 1880 ’ s, it is also known as the beautiful bean, Boston bean and Yankee bean.

Nectar - A sugary liquid secreted by many flowers and attractive to bees. In the United States, undiluted fruit juice or a mixture of fruit juices. In France, the diluted, sweetened juice of peaches, apricots, guavas, black currants or other fruits, the juice of which would be too thick or too tart to drink straight.

Nectarine - A medium-sized stone fruit with a smooth red and yellow skin, a firm yellowish-pink flesh and a peachy flavor with undertones of almond available as freestone and clingstone.

Needling - A process used to tenderize meat the meat is penetrated by closely spaced, thin blades with sharp points, the muscle fibers are thus cut into shorter lengths also known as pinning.

Neufchatel - A soft, unripened cheese made in France’s Normandy region from cows it has a white color and a slightly salty flavor that becomes more pungent as it ages sold as small cylinders, rectangles or hearts. An American cheese made from pasteurized milk or a mixture of pasteurized milk and cream similar to cream cheese and smoother than its French inspiration.

New American Cuisine - A late-20th-century movement that began in California but has spread across the United States it stresses the use of fresh, locally grown, seasonal produce and high-quality ingredients simply prepared in a fashion that preserves and emphasizes natural flavors.

New Brunswick Stew - A Canadian casserole of roasted lamb or beef, smoked ham, string beans, wax beans, new potatoes, onions, green peas and carrots cooked in the oven.

Newburg - A dish consisting of cooked shellfish (lobster, shrimp or crab) in a rich sauce of cream and egg yolks flavored with sherry usually served over toast points.

New England Chowder - A fish, clam or corn chowder containing salt port, potatoes and onions.

New Mexico Red Chile, Dried - A dried New Mexico red chili it has a dark red to brown color and a medium hot to hot flavor available as crushed flakes or powder also known as chili Colorado and dried California chili.

New Mexico Red Chile, Fresh - A ripened New Mexico green chili it has a dark red color, a thick flesh and a medium to medium hot, sweet flavor.

New Potato - A small, immature red potato.

Nibs - Cleaned, roasted cocoa kernels that are ready for processing.

Nicoise - Foods cooked in the style of Nice. These dishes may include garlic, Nicoise olives, anchovies, tomatoes, and green beans. Salad Nicoise is the most famous of all these dishes, consisting of potatoes, olives, green beans, and vinaigrette dressing.

Nog - Generic term for eggnog or any other drink made with beaten egg, milk and spirits. A traditional English term for strong ale.

Noisette - A small round steak, made of lamb or beef tenderloin.

Noisette Butter - Whole butter which has been cooked until it reaches a rich, nutty brown color and aroma.

Nondairy Creamer - A product used to lighten and dilute coffee and tea made from a hydrogenated oil or saturated fat such as coconut or palm oil, sweeteners, preservatives and emulsifiers it is available in powdered, liquid or frozen form also known as coffee whitener.

Nonreactive - A term used to describe cooking and serving utensils made of materials that do not react with acids and brine (a salt and water solution) to discolor foods or form toxic substances.

Nonstick Plastic Nonstick Coating Nonstick Finish - A polymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is applied to the surface of some cookware it provides a slippery, nonreactive finish that prevents foods from sticking and allows the use of less fat easily scratched.

Noodles - Ribbons of various lengths, widths and thicknesses made from a dough of wheat flour, water and egg (or egg yolks) and generally boiled also known as egg noodles.

Nori - Dark green, purple or black paper-thin sheets of dried seaweed with a sweet, salty ocean flavor used in Japanese cuisine to wrap sushi or as a garnish or flavoring.

Nose - A wine-tasting term for a wine’s bouquet or aroma. A tasting term for a person with a highly developed and discerning sense of smell.

Nougat - A French confection made with a cooked sugar or honey syrup mixed with roasted nuts and candied fruit sometimes the confection is made with egg whites, which produce a white, chewy, taffy-like candy.

Nougatine - A darker candy, made of caramel syrup and nuts. This is rolled into thin sheets and formed into cups or bowls to serve as a vessel for other candy or fruit.

Nuoc-Mam - A Vietnamese fish sauce made with fermented fish or shrimp.

Nut - The edible single-seed kernel (the meat) of a fruit surrounded by a hard shell (e.g.hazelnut) it has high protein and fat contents and is used for snacking or to provide flavor and texture to foods.

Nutella - The proprietary name for a paste made from hazelnuts, cocoa and sugar it is used as a spread for bread or toast and as a flavoring for pastries and confections.

Nut Flour - A flour made of finely ground nuts and used in certain cakes and other pastries.

Nut Meat nutmeat - The edible kernel of a nut.

Nutmeg - The hard seed of a yellow fruit from a tree native to the East Indies it has an oval shape, a smooth texture and a strong, sweet aroma and flavor used ground (grated) in sweet and savory dishes.

Nutmeg Grater - A grater used for reducing a whole nutmeg to a powder the grating surface can be flat or convex.

Nutty - A food containing an abundance of nuts or having the pronounced flavor of nuts. A cheese-tasting term for a cheese with a flavor reminiscent of nuts, especially hazelnuts or walnuts. A wine-tasting term for the characteristic nutlike aroma and flavor.

Oaky - A wine-tasting term for the characteristic toasty or spicy, vanilla-like aroma and flavor of a wine that has been aged in oak barrels a moderate amount is desirable, an excessive amount is not.

Oatmeal - Coarsely ground oats that are cooked as a hot cereal and used in baking.

Oats - A cereal grass (Avena sativa) with a highly nutritious grain kernel.

Oats, Instant - Rolled oats that have been partially cooked and then dried before rolling.

Oats, Quick-Cooking - Rolled oats cut into smaller pieces to reduce cooking time.

Oats, Rolled - Steamed oat groats rolled into flat flakes also known as old-fashioned oats.

Oblique Cuts - Also known as roll cuts small pieces of food, usually vegetables, with two angle-cut sides.

Octopus - Any of several varieties of cephalopod mollusks found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea generally, they have a large head and tentacles but no cuttlebone the skin is gray when raw and turns purple when cooked and the lean, white flesh has a firm, somewhat rubbery texture and a mild flavor also known as devilfish.

Offset Spatula - A tool with a flat, unsharpened stainless steel blade with a bend or step near the handle, forming a Z shape the end of the blade is rounded and blunt available in a variety of lengths and widths used for spreading batter, filling and frosting cakes and pastries and moving items from one place to another, depending on the size of the blade, an offset spatula may also be referred to as a grill spatula or a cake spatula.

Oignon Pique - French for "pricked onion" a bay leaf tacked with a clove to a peeled onion used to flavor sauces and soups.

Oils - Fats (generally derived from plants) that are liquid at room temperature.

Oily - A tasting term used to describe the greasy surface of some foods, created by excessive use of oil in their preparation or the presence of natural oils (e.g.,hard cheeses).

Okra -The seed pod of a tropical plant (Abelmoschus esculentus) of the hollyhock family native to Africa the oblong, tapering pod has ridged green skin and a flavor reminiscent of asparagus and is used like a vegetable in African and southern U.S. cuisines because it develops a gelatinous texture if cooked for long periods, it is also used as a thickener also known as gumbo and ladies ’ fingers.

Old Bay Seasoning - The proprietary name of a spice blend containing celery salt, dry mustard, paprika and other flavorings used in shellfish preparations.

Olive - The small fruit of a tree (Olea europaea) native to the Mediterranean region it has a single pit, a high oil content, a green color before ripening and a green or black color after ripening and an inedibly bitter flavor when raw it is eaten on its own after washing, soaking and pickling or pressed for oil available in a range of sizes, including (from smallest to largest) medium, colossal, supercolossal and jumbo.

Olive Oil - An oil obtained by pressing tree-ripened olives it has a distinctive fruity, olive flavor and is graded according to its degree of acidity used as a cooking medium, flavoring and ingredient.

Olive Oil, Extra Virgin - Olive oil produced from the first cold pressing, the finest and fruitiest it has a pale straw to bright green color and not more than 1% acid.

Olive Oil, Light - An olive oil resulting from the last pressing it has a very mild flavor, light color, high smoke point and up to 3% acid.

Olive Oil, Pure - An olive oil that has been cleaned, filtered and stripped of much of its flavor and color by using heat and mechanical devices during the refining process it has up to 3% acid.

Olive Oil, Virgin - Olive oil with 2% acid it has a less fruity flavor than extra virgin olive oil and a pale yellow to medium yellow-green color.

Omelet Omelette - A dish made from beaten eggs, seasonings and sometimes milk or water, cooked in butter until firm it can be plain or filled with sweet or savory fillings and served flat or folded.

Omelet Pan - A shallow pan with gently curved sides, a flat bottom and a single long handle available with a nonstick surface and in 6-to 10-in. diameters.

One-Two-Three-Four Cake - A simple American yellow cake with a recipe that is easy to remember: 1 cup shortening, 2 cups sugar, 3 cups flour and 4 eggs plus flavoring and leavening.

Onion - Any of a variety of strongly aromatic and flavored bulbous vegetables of the lily family.

Onion Flakes - Onions that have been dried and cut into flakes.

Onion Pique - French for "pricked onion" a bay leaf tacked with a clove to a peeled onion used to flavor sauces and soups.

Onion Powder - Dehydrated grated onions.

Onion Salt - A mixture of dried powdered onions and salt.

On The Half Shell - Raw shellfish served in their bottom shell, usually on a bed of crushed ice with lemon juice, cocktail sauce, horseradish, ketchup or other condiments.

O pen-Faced Sandwich - A slice of bread topped with foods served cold or hot (it is usually heated by pouring hot gravy over it).

Organic - Foods, usually plant foods sold fresh or minimally processed, that are grown without chemicals or other incidental food additives such as pesticides.

Organic Farming - A method of farming that does not rely on synthetic pesticides, fungicides, herbicides or fertilizers.

Orzo - Italian for barley and used to describe rice-shaped pasta.

Osetra - A very flavorful caviar the medium-sized crispy eggs are golden yellow to brown and quite oily.

Osso Buco Ossobuco - An Italian dish consisting of veal shanks braised in olive oil, white wine, stock, onions, tomatoes, garlic, carrots, celery and lemon peel, garnished with gremolada and served with risotto.

Ostrich - A large flightless bird native to Africa its meat is lean and purple, turning brown when cooked, and has a flavor similar to that of lean beef.

Oven-Dried Tomato - A tomato that has been dried in an oven it has a dark red color, a chewy texture and a flavor that is not quite as strong as that of a sun-dried tomato.

Oven Frying - A method of frying without turning the food usually meat, is dredged in flour, rolled in melted fat, placed on a baking sheet and baked in a hot oven.

Ovenproof - A description for a baking dish or other item of cookware, usually made of glass, pottery or ceramics, that can withstand an oven’s high temperatures.

Oven Spring - The rapid rise of yeast goods in a hot oven, resulting from the production and expansion of trapped gases.

Ovenware - Heat-resistant dishes of glass, pottery or ceramics used for baking and serving foods.

Overproof - To allow a yeast dough to rise (ferment) too long.

Oxidation - A chemical reaction between a substance and oxygen it changes the nature of the substance, usually to its detriment. An energy-releasing metabolic process during which a nutrient breaks down and its components combine with oxygen.

Oxtail - A fabricated cut of the beef primal round or veal primal leg it is a portion of the tail and contains many bones but is quite flavorful.

Oyster - A member of a large family of bivalve mollusks found in saltwater regions worldwide generally, they have a rough gray shell (the top shell is flat and the bottom is somewhat convex) and a grayish tan flesh with a soft texture and briny flavor they are eaten raw or cooked there are four principal types of domestic oysters: Atlantic oysters, European flat oysters, Olympia oysters and Pacific oysters.

Oyster Cracker - A small, round, slightly hard cracker it is traditionally served with oyster stew and chowders.

Oyster Knife - A knife used to pry open oyster shells it has a fat, 3-in.-long, pointed, arrow shaped blade and usually a protective flange for the hand also known as a shucking knife.

Oysters Rockefeller - An American dish of oysters served hot on the half shell with a topping of spinach, bread crumbs and seasonings.

Paella - A rustic Spanish dish of rice, vegetables, sausages, poultry, fish and shellfish seasoned with saffron.

Paella Pan - A wide, shallow pan with slightly sloping sides and two handles often made of metal or earthenware, it is used for cooking paella.

Paiola - A Portuguese sausage made with pork and fat and seasoned with paprika, pepper and garlic.

Panada Panade - Something other than fat added to a forcemeat to enhance smoothness, aid emulsification or both it is often béchamel, rice or crustless white bread soaked in milk.

Pan-Broiling - A dry-heat cooking method that uses conduction to transfer heat to food resting directly on a cooking surface no fat is used and the food remains uncovered.

Pancake - A flat, round, leavened bread cooked on a griddle and served with butter and sweet syrup, especially for breakfast also known as griddle cake and flapjack.

P ancetta - An Italian pork belly bacon cured with salt, pepper and other spices (it is not smoked) available rolled into a cylinder and used to flavor items such as pasta dishes, sauces and forcemeats.

Pandoro - An Italian Christmas bread from Verona similar to panettone and baked in a star-shaped mold the eggs and butter give it a golden color.

Pan-Dressed - A market form for fish in which the viscera, gills and scales are removed and the fins and tail are trimmed.

Pan Dulces - Mexican and Latin American sweet breads eaten for breakfast.

Panettone - A sweet Italian yeast bread filled with raisins, candied citrus peel and pine nuts traditionally baked in a rounded cylindrical mold and served as a breakfast bread or dessert.

Pan-Frying - A dry-heat cooking method in which the food is placed in a moderate amount of hot fat.

Pan Gravy - A sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from roasted meat or poultry.

Panko - Large-flaked, unseasoned Japanese bread crumbs.

Panna Cotta - An Italian dessert consisting of a simple molded custard made with gelatin, usually served with fresh fruit or chocolate sauce.

Pansies - A wide variety of edible flowers with a flavor reminiscent of grapes and used as a garnish.

Papaw - A slightly elongated and curved medium-sized fruit native to North America it has a smooth yellowish skin, a pale yellow flesh, a custard-like texture, many seeds and a flavor and aroma reminiscent of a banana and pear.

Papaya - A large pear-shaped tropical fruit with a yellowish skin and a sweet, juicy orange flesh.

Papillote, en - A food (e.g., fish with a vegetable garnish) enclosed in parchment paper or a greased paper wrapper and baked the paper envelope is usually slit open table side so that the diner can enjoy the escaping aroma.

Paprika - A blend of dried red-skinned chilies the flavor can range from slightly sweet and mild to pungent and moderately hot and the color can range from bright red-orange to deep blood red used in central European and Spanish cuisines as a spice and garnish also known and Hungarian sweet pepper.

Paraffin - The wax coating applied to the rinds of some cheeses to protect the cheeses during transport and increase shelf life generally the paraffin is red, black, yellow or clear.

Parboiling - Partially cooking a food in a boiling or simmering liquid similar to blanching, but the cooking time is longer.

Parchment Paper - Heavy grease-resistant paper used to line cake pans or baking sheets, to wrap foods for baking en papillote and to make disposable piping bags.

Parcooking - Partially cooking a food by any cooking method.

Pare - To remove the thin outer layer of foods such as fruits and vegetables with a small, short-bladed knife known as a paring knife or with a vegetable peeler.

Parfait - A dessert composed of layers of ice cream, sauce and whipped cream served in a tall, narrow glass. A French frozen custard or water ice usually flavored with fruit.

Paring Knife - A small knife used for trimming and peeling produce or detail work.

Parisienne Parisian - Small spheres of fruit or vegetables cut with a tiny melon ball cutter.

Parker House Rolls - A white flour yeast roll shaped by folding each individual round of dough in half along an off-center crease before baking named for the Parker House Hotel in Boston.

Parmesan - A Parmigiana-Reggiano-style cheese made from cow’s milk in places other than Italy. A dish whose main ingredient (e.g.,veal cutlet) is dipped in an egg mixture and then bread crumbs, Parmesan and seasonings, sautéed, and covered with a tomato sauce sometimes a slice of mozzarella is melted on top before adding the tomato sauce.

Parmigiano-Reggiano - A hard cheese made in Italy’s Parma region from cow’s milk it has a golden yellow interior, a hard, oily rind and a spicy, rich, sharp flavor aged for 2-3 years, it is used for grating.

Parsley - An herb with long, slender stalks, small, curly, dark green leaves and a slightly peppery, tangy fresh flavor (the flavor is stronger in the stalks, which are used in a bouquet garni) generally used fresh as a flavoring or garnish also known as curly parsley.

Parsnip - A root vegetable with bright green, feathery leaves the long, tapering root has a creamy-white skin and flesh and a slightly sweet flavor reminiscent of a carrot.

Passion Fruit - A small ovoid tropical fruit with a wrinkled, purple skin, a soft, golden flesh with tiny edible seeds and a tropical sweet-tart flavor often used as a flavoring for sauces and beverages.

Pasta - An unleavened dough formed from a liquid (eggs and/or water) mixed with a flour (wheat, buckwheat, rice or other grains or a combination of grains) and cut or extruded into tubes, ribbons and other shapes flavorings such as herbs, spices and vegetables (e.g. tomatoes and spinach) can be added to the dough pasta is usually boiled and served with a sauce.

Pasta Fork - A long, scoop-like fork with 1-in-long blunt tipped prongs with slots between used to lift and drain pasta and portion single servings of already sauced pasta also known as a spaghetti fork or spaghetti rake.

P asta Machine, roller-type - An electrical or manual tool with a series of smooth rollers that roll, flatten and thin pasta dough the dough is then passed through notched rollers, which cut it into ribbons.

Pasta Pot - A tall pot with a capacity of 6-8 qt it has a perforated basket insert that holds the pasta and, removed from the water, acts as a strainer.

Pasta Primavera - An American dish of pasta with a sauce of sautéed vegetables.

Pasteurize - To sterilize a food, especially milk, by heating it to a temperature of 140-180 F (60-82.2 C) for a short period to kill bacteria.

Pastillage - A paste made of sugar, cornstarch and gelatin it may be cut or molded into decorative shapes.

Pastrami - A cut of beef (usually from the plate, brisket or round), rubbed with salt and a seasoning paste containing garlic, peppercorns, red pepper flakes, cinnamon, cloves and coriander seeds, then dry cured, smoked and cooked.

Pastry - A dough made with flour and shortening and used for the crust of pies, tarts and the like. A food made with such a dough. A term used broadly and imprecisely for all fancy sweet baked goods, including cakes, sweet rolls and cookies.

Pastry Bag - A cone-shaped bag with two open ends, the smaller of which can be fitted with a plastic or metal tip the bag is filled with icing, cream, dough or batter, which is squeezed through the tip in decorative patterns or designs available in a range of sizes and variety of materials also known as a piping bag.

Pastry Blender - A tool with several U-shaped metal wires attached to a wooden or plastic handle used to cut cold fat into flour.

Pastry Brush - A small brush used for applying glaze, egg wash and the like to doughs, buttering pans and brushing excess flour from dough available in a variety of sizes, with either a round or flat head and natural or nylon bristles.

Pastry Cream - A rich, thick custard made with milk, eggs, sugar and flour or cornstarch, and cooked on the stove top used to fill éclairs, tarts, cakes and other pastries also known as crème patissiere.

Pastry Tip - A small cone-shaped metal or plastic insert for a pastry bag the small end of each tip is cut, bent or perforated so that the mixture forced through it will form various designs or patterns used for piping creams, fillings, frostings and other soft mixtures into decorative shapes and patterns.

Pastry Wheel - A small tool with a thin, sharp wheel (plain or fluted) attached to a short handle used for cutting doughs.

Pâte - French for pie. Traditionally, a fine savory meat filling wrapped in pastry, baked and served hot or cold. A pork, veal, lamb, beef, game, fish, shellfish, poultry and/or vegetable forcemeat that is seasoned and baked it is served hot or cold.

Pâte à choux - French for cream puff dough or choux pastry.

Pâte Brisee - French for a rich, flaky short dough used as a crust for sweet or savory dishes.

Pâte en Croute - A pâte baked in a pastry dough.

Pâte en Croute Mold, oval fluted - An oval metal mold with hinged sides embossed with a fluted pattern the sides lock in place along the rim of the bottom plate and are easily removed when the pate is finished traditionally used for meat and game pates en croute.

Pâte Sucree - A dough containing sugar that produces a very rich, crisp (not flaky) baked product also known as sweet dough, it is used for tart shells.

Patty Melt - A dish that consists of a ground beef patty on a slice of bread, garnished with grilled onions and cheese, topped with another slice of bread and grilled until the cheese melts.

Paupiette - A thin slice of meat, poultry or fish spread with a savory stuffing and rolled, then braised or poached.

Paysanne - Foods cut into flat squares of approximately 0.5 X 0.5 in. and 0.25 in. thick (12 X 12 X 6 mm).

Peach - A medium-sized stone fruit native to China it has a fuzzy, yellow-red skin, a pale orange, yellow or white juicy flesh surrounding a hard stone and a sweet flavor available as clingstone and freestone.

Peach Melba - A dessert made with poached peach halves, vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce created by the French chef Auguste Escoffier for the opera singer Nellie Melba.

Peanut - A legume, not a true nut, grown underground. The hard seed has a papery brown skin and is encased in a thin, netted tan pod the seed is used for snacking and for making peanut butter and oil.

Peanut Butter - A paste made of ground peanuts, vegetable oil (usually hydrogenated) and salt available in smooth and chunky styles.

Peanut Oil - A clear oil obtained by pressing peanuts it has a delicate flavor and a high smoke point and is used as an all-purpose culinary oil.

Pear - A spherical to bell-shaped fruit generally with a juicy, tender, crisp, off-white flesh, a moderately thin skin that can range in color from celadon green to golden yellow to tawny red and a flavor that can be sweet to spicy pears can be eaten out of hand or cooked and are grown in temperate regions worldwide.

Pearl Onion - A small onion with a white to yellow outer layer, a white flesh and a mild flavor it is usually cooked like a vegetable or used in stews and soups.

Pearl Sugar - A coarse granulated sugar used for decorating pastries and confections also known as sanding sugar and crystal sugar.

Pear Tomato - A small pear-shaped tomato with a bright red or golden yellow color eaten raw or used as a garnish.

Peas - The edible seeds contained within the pods of various vines of the family Leguminosae the seeds are generally shelled and the pod discarded although available fresh, peas are usually marketed canned or frozen.

Pecan - The nut of a tree of the hickory family native to North America it has a smooth, thin, hard, tan shell that houses a nut with beige flesh and a high fat content.

Pecan Pie - A dessert from the American South made with a single flaky crust filled with a very sweet, rich mixture of butter, eggs, brown sugar and pecans, then baked until firm.

Peck - A unit of volume measurement equal to ¼ bushel in the U.S. system, it is equal to approximately 538 cu. in. or 8 dry quarts.

Pecorino - An Italian term referring to any cheese made from only ewe’s milk most are aged have a white to pale yellow color and a sharp, pungent flavor.

Pecorino Romano - A ewe’s milk Romano.

Pectin - A food additive, found in plant cell walls, used as a thickener in foods such as jams and jellies.

Peel - To remove rind or skin. A wooden or metal tool with a long handle and large blade used to transfer pizzas and yeast breads to and from a baking or baking sheet in the oven also known as a baker’s peel or pizza paddle.

Peking Duck - A Mandarin Chinese dish consisting of a duck whose skin is separated from the meat by means of an air pump the duck cavity is stuffed with a mixture of soy sauce, garlic, leeks, brown sugar and ginger, trussed and hung, coated with flour and honey and then roasted.

Penne - Italian for pen or quill and used to describe short to medium-length straight tubes (ridged or smooth) of pasta with diagonally cut ends.

Peperoncini - Italian small, sweet, green or red peppers, usually pickled.

Peperoncino - Italian for chili pepper.

Pepper - The fruit of various member of the Capsicum genus native to the Western Hemisphere, a pepper has a hollow body with placental ribs (internal white veins) to which tiny seeds are attached (seeds are also attached to the stem end of the interior) a pepper can be white, yellow, green, brown, purple or red and can have a flavor ranging from delicately sweet to fiery hot, the genus includes sweet peppers and hot peppers.

Peppercorn - The berry of the pepper plant, a climbing vine native to India and Indonesia it has a brown color when fully ripened and is available in three principal varieties black, green and white.

Peppercorn, Black - A peppercorn picked when green and dried in the sun until it turns black it has a slightly hot flavor with a hint of sweetness whole or ground, it is the most commonly available peppercorn.

Peppercorn, Green - An unripened peppercorn that is either freeze-dried or pickled in brine or vinegar it has a soft texture and a fresh, sour flavor similar to that of capers.

Peppercorn, White - A peppercorn allowed to ripen on the vine the berry is then fermented and its red-brown skin removed it has a light white-tan color and milder flavor and aroma than those of a black peppercorn available whole or ground.

Pepper Grinder Pepper Mill - A grinder used to crush peppercorns many can be adjusted to produce fine to coarse granules.

Peppermint - An herb and member of the mint family it has thin, stiff, pointed, bright green, purple-tinged leaves and a pungent, menthol flavor, used as a flavoring and garnish.

Peppermint Oil - The essential oil of peppermint it has a sharp, menthol flavor and is used as a flavoring for sweet dishes.

Peppermint Schnapps - A mint-flavored distilled spirit it has a lighter body than crème de menthe.

Pepperoni - A slender, firm, air-dried Italian sausage made from beef or pork, seasoned with chilies and red and black pepper.

Pepper Steak - Beef steak coated with coarsely ground black peppercorns it is sautéed in butter and served with a sauce made from the drippings, stock wine and cream sometimes flamed with brandy or Cognac. A Chinese stir-fry dish consisting of beef, green pepper and onions cooked with soy sauce and other seasonings.

P equin Piquin - A small, conical dried chili with an orange-red color, a thin flesh and a sweet, smoky flavor.

Perishable - Foods and beverages that can spoil or deteriorate rapidly, even under appropriate storage conditions.

Pernod - An anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France.

Perrier - The proprietary name of a French mineral water.

Persillade - A food served with or containing parsley. A mixture of bread crumbs, parsley and garlic used to coat meats, usually lamb.

Persimmon - A spherical fruit with a glossy yellow to bright red skin, an orange-red flesh, a jelly-like texture and a sweet flavor when ripe.

Pesto - An Italian pasta sauce made from basil, garlic, olive oil, pine nuts and Parmesan or Pecorino.

Petite Syrah Petit Sirah - A red wine grape planted in California derived from a variety grown in France’s Rhone Valley, it is sometimes used as a blending grape. A red wine made from this grape it generally has a full body, an intense, spicy aroma and a light to deep red color.

Petit Four - A French term for any bite-sized cake, pastry, cookie or confection served after a meal or with coffee or tea. A French confection consisting of a small piece of filled sponge cake coated with fondant icing and elaborately decorated.

Petroleum Wax - A food additive refined from petroleum and used as a chewing gum base or protective coating on cheese and raw fruits and vegetables.

Pfeffernuesse - A hard, round, spicy German Christmas cookie flavored with honey and black pepper.

Phyllo Filo - Pastry dough made with very thin sheets of a flour-and-water mixture several sheets are often layered with melted butter and used in sweet or savory preparations.

Picante - Spanish and Portuguese for spicy.

Piccata - An Italian dish of thinly sliced chicken or veal, lightly floured, sautéed in butter and sprinkled with lemon juice.

Pickle - To preserve food in a brine or vinegar solution.

Pickling Spices - A spice blend used to flavor the solution used to pickle foods or as a seasoning.

Pico De Gallo - A relish of finely chopped jicama, onions, bell pepper, oranges, jalapenos and cucumbers.

Pie - A pastry consisting of a sweet filling in a pastry crust baked in a slope-sided pan, it may have a bottom crust only or a top and bottom crust. A savory meat or vegetable filled turnover or pastry. A sweet fruit mixture baked in a deep dish with only a top crust (e.g., cobbler).

Pierogi - A Polish dish consisting of dumplings or noodles stuffed with mixtures such as pork, onions, and cottage cheese or cabbage, mushrooms, potatoes and rice and boiled, baked or fried.

Pig - The young swine of either sex weighing less than 120 lb.

Pig, Suckling - A pig slaughtered when it is 6-8 weeks old the meat has a light-colored flesh with a succulent flavor and a tender texture.

Pigment - A substance that contributes color to a food or processed food either naturally occurring or a chemical additive.

Pigs in a Blanket - Sausages or hotdogs (usually a small cocktail size) wrapped in pie or bread dough. Breakfast sausages wrapped in pancakes.

Pilaf - A cooking method for grains the grains are lightly sautéed in hot fat and then a hot liquid (usually stock or broth) is added the mixture is simmered without stirring until the liquid is absorbed.

Pimiento - A large, heart-shaped pepper with a red skin and a sweet flavor used in paprika and to stuff olives.

Pimento Cheese - Any cheese (typically cheese spreads, Neufchatel-style cheese and cream cheese) to which chopped pimientos have been added.

Pina - Spanish for pineapple.

Pina Colada - A cocktail made of rum, pineapple juice and cream of coconut served over ice and garnished with a pineapple chunk.

Pinch - A traditional measure of volume refers to the amount of a seasoning or other food one can hold between the thumb and forefinger, approximately 1/16 teaspoon.

Pineapple - A tropical fruit with a spiny, diamond-patterned, and a greenish-brown skin the juicy yellow flesh surrounds a hard core and has a sweet-tart flavor.

Pineapple Corer - A tall tool with two concentric rings with serrated teeth as the corer is pressed down over the pineapple, one ring separates the flesh from the skin and the other separates the core from the flesh.

Pine Nut - The nut of various pine trees it has a shell that covers ivory-colored meat, a rich distinctive flavor and a high fat content also known as a pine kernel and Indian nut.

Pink Peppercorn - The dried berry of a South American rose plant it has a rose color and a bitter, pine-like flavor and is available dried or pickled in vinegar.

Pink Salmon - A variety of salmon found in the Pacific Ocean from California to Alaska it has a bluish-green skin with numerous black blotches, a lean, soft pink flesh and a mild flavor and is generally used for canning also known as a humpback salmon.

P inot Blanc - A white wine grape considered to be a true Pinot and planted in France (Alsace), Germany, Austria, Italy and California. A white wine made from this grape dry and crisp but with less flavor than a Chardonnay because of its high acidity, it is suitable for making sparkling wine.

Pinot Gris - A white wine grape grown in Italy, Germany, France and parts of central Europe the resulting wine is generally full bodies also known as Pinot Grigio (Italy), Tokay d ’ Alsace (Alsace) and Rulander (Germany).

Pinot Noir - A red wine grape grown worldwide, including, France’s Champagne and Burgundy regions, Germany, Italy, central Europe, California and Oregon. A red wine made from this grape it has a medium to deep ruby red color and a minty or black cherry medium to deep ruby red color and a minty or black cherry aroma also used to make a rose wine and sparkling wines.

Pinto Bean - A medium-sized pale pink bean with reddish-brown streaks available dried also known as a crabeye bean and a red Mexican bean.

Piping - Forcing a material, such as icing, chocolate, buttercream or choux pastry, from a pastry bag in a steady and even manner to form specific shapes or decorative designs.

Piping Gel - A sweet but flavorless, colored transparent substance made from sugar, corn syrup and vegetable gum used for decorating cakes and pastries.

Pirouettes - Thin wafer cookies that are curled tightly around a dowel while still hot the ends are often dipped in melted chocolate.

Pistachio - A pale green nut encased in a hard, tan shell that is sometimes dyed red with food coloring or blanched until white it has a delicate, subtle flavor.

Pita Pita Bread Pitta Pitah - An oval-or round-shaped, hollow Middle Eastern flatbread leavened with yeast it is often split open or cut crosswise to form a pocket, then filled with a stuffing also known as pocket bread.

Pith - The bitter, white membrane found in citrus fruit between the rind and the pulp.

Pitted - A fruit such as a plum or apricot that has had its pit removed.

Pitter - A tool used to remove stones from cherries and olives it has two handles the top one has a metal shaft and the bottom one is ring shaped and holds the fruit when squeezed together, the shaft pushes the pit through the fruit and out the hole also known as a stoner.

Pizza - An Italian dish consisting of a flat pie or tart made from bread dough topped with any of a variety of foods, but principally tomato sauce and cheese (often mozzarella) and baked.

Pizza Dough - A yeast dough used as the crust for pizzas it may be thick and bready or thin and crisp.

Pizzelle - A large, crisp, round Italian cookie made from a rich batter of butter, eggs, sugar, flour and vanilla the batter is cooked on a pizzelle iron.

Pizzelle Iron - Similar to a waffle iron, it is a tool with two embossed or intricately carved 5-in-wide disks hinged together and attached to a long handle and used to make pizelle the iron is heated on the stove top, the batter is poured in and it is all returned to the stove to bake the pattern imprints onto the cookies.

Plank Planked - A method of cooking and serving meat or fish on a seasoned board some of the wood flavor is imparted to the food.

Plantain Plantain Banana - A starchy banana with a green skin, a fairly firm pinkish flesh, a fatter, longer shape than an eating banana and a squash-like flavor used for cooking much like a squash also known as a cooking banana.

Plat Du Jour - French menu term for the plate (specialty) of the day.

Plate - To place foods on a plate it can be done with extreme care to create an appealing visual impression.

Plattar - Small Swedish pancakes, traditionally served with lingonberries.

Pluck - To remove the feathers from poultry and game birds.

Plum - A small to medium-sized stone fruit that grows in clusters it has a smooth skin that can be yellow, green, red, purple or indigo blue, a juicy flesh, a large pit and a sweet flavor.

Plump, to - A cooking technique to which dried fruit is soaked in a liquid until the fruit softens and swells slightly from absorbing the liquid.

Plum Pudding - A steamed bread-like British dessert containing spices, prunes and other dried fruit usually served warm, flamed with rum or brandy and accompanied by hard sauce.

Plum Sauce - A spicy, fruity sauce made from plums, chilies, vinegar and sugar used in Chinese cuisine as a dip and flavoring also known as duck sauce.

Plum Tomato - A medium-sized oval tomato with a meaty flesh and a red skin (a yellow variety is also available) also known as an Italian tomato or Roma tomato.

Poaching - A moist-heat cooking method that transfers heat from a hot liquid to the food submerged in it.

Poblano - A long, tapering fresh chile with thick flesh, a medium to hot flavor and a dark green color tinged with purple or black sometimes known imprecisely as pasilla.

Pod - The outer covering of certain seeds such as peas and beans.

Polenta - Italian for cornmeal. An Italian dish made by cooking cornmeal with a liquid until it forms a soft mass it is eaten hot or cooled, cut into squares and grilled or fried.

Pomegranate - A medium-sized fruit with a thin, red to pink-blushed yellow, leathery skin and many seeds encased in a pinkish translucent flesh separated by an ivory-colored, bitter membrane the flesh has a sweet-tart flavor and the seeds are crunchy.

Pomegranate Syrup - A thick sweet-sour syrup made by boiling the juice of sour pomegranates also known as grenadine molasses.

Popcorn - A variety of corn that explodes when it is exposed to dry heat (the moisture and air inside the kernel expands, forms steam, splits the hull and turns the kernel inside out) available as un-popped seeds and fully popped, plain or flavored. Can refer to small pieces of battered and deep-fried shrimp, chicken, clams and the like.

Popover - A batter quick bread baked in a muffin shape the crust is crisp and brown and the interior moist and almost hollow.

Popover Pan - A heavy baking pan used for making popovers and Yorkshire pudding similar to a muffin pan but with deeper, tapered indentions that are spaced farther apart.

Poppy Seed - The tiny, round, hard, blue-gray seed of the poppy it has a sweet, nutty flavor and is used in baked goods or processed for oil.

Poppy Seed Oil - Oil made from poppy seeds it has a pale color and a pleasant, delicate flavor and is used principally as an ingredient or flavoring.

Pork - The flesh of hogs, usually slaughtered under the age of 1 year.

Pork Loin Roast, full - A sub-primal cut of the pork primal loin it is a roast taken from either end of the loin or can be the entire trimmed loin.

Pork Sausage - Any of several varieties of fresh sausage made from ground pork and pork fat, typically seasoned with pepper and sage sold as links, patties or in bulk and also available smoked.

Pork Tenderloin - A sub-primal cut of the pork primal loin it is the tender, lean tenderloin muscle and can be used as is or further fabricated into medallions.

Port - A sweet fortified wine made in northern Portugual from red and white wine grapes, traditionally served with dessert or after a meal.

Portabella - A very large crimini mushroom with a dense texture and a rich, meaty flavor.

Porterhouse Steak - A fabricated cut of the beef primal short loin this tender cut contains a distinctive T-shaped portion of the backbone and large portions (on either side of the center bone) of the loin eye muscle and tenderloin also known as a king steak.

Potato - The starchy tuber of a succulent, non-woody annual plant native to the Andes Mountains it is cooked like a vegetable, made into flour, processed for chips and used for distillation mash.

Potato, Mealy - Any of a variety of potatoes (e.g., russet) with a high starch content, low sugar content, low moisture content and thick skin used principally for baking, deep-frying and making into whipped or pureed potato dishes also known as a baker or starchy potato.

Potato, Waxy - Any of a variety of potatoes (e.g., red potato) with a low starch content, high moisture content, high sugar content and thin skin used principally for boiling also known as a boiling potato.

Potato Buds - A form of dehydrated mashed potatoes the granules or nuggets require some stirring for reconstitution.

Potato Chips - Very thinly sliced, deep-fried potatoes, usually salted.

Potato Flour - An ultrafine, soft, white powder that is the pure starch obtained by either soaking grated potatoes in water or grinding cooked, dried potatoes used as a thickener or for baking (alone or blended with wheat flour) also called potato starch.

Potato Masher - A utensil with an inflexible zigzag wire and a wooden or metal handle it is used to reduce high-starch vegetables such as potatoes or parsnips to a soft, fluffy mass.

Potato Nest - A dish consisting of shredded potatoes deep-fried in hot fat in a potato nest basket it is used as a container for serving certain foods.

Potato Nest Basket - An assemblage of two wire baskets, one smaller than the other shredded potatoes are placed in the larger basket, and the smaller basket is placed on top of the potatoes the assemblage is submerged in hot fat and cooked available in various sizes.

Potato Salad - A dish of cooked, sliced or diced potatoes bound with mayonnaise and flavored with ingredients such as onions, green peppers, cooked eggs, herbs and spices usually served chilled.

Potato Salad, German - A dish of cooked, sliced or diced potatoes bound with a vinegar dressing, flavored with bacon, bacon fat and onions and served warm.

Potpie Pot Pie - A casserole dish of meat or poultry and vegetables in a rich sauce topped with a crust and baked.

Pot Roast - To cook a piece of meat by first browning it in hot fat and then braising it in a covered pot.

Pot Stickers - Small Chinese dumplings made of won ton wrappers with a meat, fish, shellfish and/or vegetable filling, either fried or browned and then cooked in a broth or steamed usually served with dipping sauces also generally known as Chinese dumplings.

Poultry - Any domesticated bird used for food the USDA recognizes six kinds of poultry chicken, duck, goose, guinea, pigeon and turkey each includes various classes.

Pound Cake - A dense, rich cake originally made with 1 lb each of butter, flour, sugar and eggs.

Praline - A rich, candy made with cream, brown sugar and pecans, shaped into small flat patties popular in Louisiana and Texas.

Prawn - A shrimp-like crustacean with a narrower body and longer legs than a shrimp it has a firm, pearly white flesh and a sweet, delicate flavor.

Precook - To cook a food partially or completely before using it to complete a dish.

Preheat - To bring an oven, broiler or pan to the desired temperature before putting in the food.

Preserved Lemons - Lemon slices or chunks cured in a salt-lemon juice mixture used as an ingredient or flavoring, especially in Moroccan cuisine.

Pressed - A food from which liquids have been extracted under pressure.

Pressure Cooker - A pot with a locking lid and a valve for escaping steam, usually available in 4 to 10 qt. capacities and sometimes with a wire basket insert food is quickly cooked and tenderized under the high heat of steam pressure.

Pressure Cooking - A method of cooking food in a pressure cooker at specific levels of pressure the higher the pressure, the higher the temperature at which water boils by cooking food in a liquid under pressure, the trapped steam cooks the food in less time than conventional methods of steaming.

Pretzel - A hard, crisp snack food made from a slender rope of leavened dough that is coated with salt and baked into a loose knot or stick.

Prick - To make small holes in the surface of the food, especially an unfilled pie crust.

Prickly Pear - The small barrel- or somewhat pear-shaped fruit of a species of cactus studded with small sharp pins and stinging fibers, it has a green to purplish-red skin, a soft yellow-green to deep pink flesh with numerous black seeds, a melon-like aroma and a sweet, bland flavor.

Produce - Agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables.

Profiterole - A miniature cream puff filled with either a sweet or savory cream or custard.
A French dessert consisting of small cream puffs filled with pastry cream, ice cream or Chantilly cream, usually mounded into a low pyramid and topped with chocolate sauce.

Proof - To allow yeast dough products to rise.

Proof Box - A cabinet or room in which heat and humidity are controlled to create the correct environment for proofing yeast doughs.

Prosciutto - Italian for ham and used to describe a seasoned, salt cured, air-dried product that is not smoked.

Prosecco - An Italian white wine , generally a dry sparkling wine , most often made from Glera grapes (previously also known as Prosecco grapes).

Provolone - An Italian cheese traditionally made from water buffalo’s milk but now also cow’s milk it has a light ivory color, a mild, mellow flavor and a smooth texture that cuts with crumbling.

Prune - A dried red or purple plum. French for plum.

Pudding - A soft, creamy cooked dessert made with eggs, milk, sugar and flavorings and thickened with flour or another starch. The dessert course of a British meal.

Pudding Mold, steamed - A bucket-shaped mold with plain or fluted sides and a central tube the lid is clamped in place and has a handle on top used for steaming puddings.

Puff Pastry - A rich flaky pastry made by enclosing fat, usually butter, in a sheet of dough, rolling the dough out, and continuing to fold and roll the dough until many thin layers of fat and dough are created as it bakes, the layers rise and separate slightly, due to the steam released by the fat it is used in many preparations, both sweet and savory.

Pulled Meat - Shredded cooked meat, usually barbecued or roasted beef or pork, torn from a larger cooked cut such as a shoulder, it is typically used for sandwiches.

Pulled Sugar - Sugar cooked to the hard-crack stage, then kneaded and pulled by hand until it is soft and pliable enough to shape into flowers, ribbons, fruits and other decorative shapes these decorations are assembled into elaborate centerpieces or displays or used to garnish pastries, especially fancy cakes.

P ulp - The flesh of a fruit.

Pulverized - A food that has been reduced to a powder or very fine grind.

Pumpernickel - Coarsely ground rye flour. A coarse, dark German-style bread with a slightly sour flavor it is made with dark rye flour and molasses.

Pumpkin - A spherical winter squash with a flattened top and base can range in size from small to very large and has a fluted orange shell (yellow and green varieties are also available), a yellow to orange flesh with a mild sweet flavor and numerous flat, edible seeds.

Pumpkinseed Oil - A thick oil made in Austria from pumpkinseeds it has a dark brown color and a slightly toasted flavor with a hint of pumpkin.

Punch Down - A folding and pressing technique used to deflate fermented yeast dough to expel and redistribute pockets of carbon dioxide and to relax the gluten.

Pungent - A sharp, biting, sometimes acrid or bitter aroma or flavor. A wine-tasting term for a heavy, penetrating strong aroma, usually indicating a high degree of volatile acids.

Pupu Platter Pu Pu Platter - A tray with a selection of hot and/or cold hors d’oeuvres it is available at many Chinese and other Asian restaurants in the United States.

Pure Bar - A beverage facility that serves only nonalcoholic beverages.

Puree - To process food to achieve a smooth pulp. A food that has been processed by mashing, straining or fine chopping to achieve a smooth pulp.

Purge - The juices remaining in a package after fresh, cooked or cured meat is removed.

Purple Potato - A moderately long, slightly spherical potato with a thick purple skin and bright purple, mealy flesh similar to a russet potato also known as a blue potato.

Pyramid - Any cone- or pyramid-shaped object or formation used to display or present foods, especially items such as fruits or sweetmeats.

Rabbit, Domesticated - Any of a variety of small burrowing mammals with long ears farm raised, it has a lean flesh with an ivory color, a relatively tender texture and a mild, delicate flavor the average market weight for a young rabbit is 2.2lb, and for a mature rabbit it is 3-5lb.

Rack - A primal section of the lamb carcass it contains both bilateral portions of eight ribs along with the tender, flavorful rib eye muscle and is usually split in half along the backbone and used as is or further fabricated into chops also known as a hotel rack and, when split into bilateral halves, as a split rack.

Radiation Cooking - A heating process that does not require physical contact between the heat source and the food being cooked instead, energy is transferred by waves of heat or light striking the food. Two kinds of radiant heat used in the kitchen are infrared and microwave.

Radicchio - A variety of chicory native to Italy the purple and white cup-shaped leaves have a bitter flavor and can be used in salads, as garnish or cooked like a vegetable also known as red-leaf chicory.

Radish - A member of the mustard family grown for its root (Raphanus sativus) generally, the crisp white flesh has a mild to peppery flavor and is usually eaten raw.

Raft - A clump of clearmeat and impurities from the stock formed during clarification it rises to the top of the simmering stock and releases additional flavors.

Ragout - Traditionally, a well-seasoned, rich stew containing meat, vegetables, and wine.

Rainier Cherry - A heart-shaped sweet cherry with a light red-blushed yellow skin, a yellowish-pink flesh and a sweet flavor.

Raisin - A sweet dried grape. French for grape.

Raita - An eastern Indian yogurt salad that consists of yogurt and various chopped vegetables (e.g., cucumbers, eggplant, potatoes or spinach) or fruits (e.g., bananas) and flavored variously with garam masala, black mustard seeds and herbs.

Ramekin, Ramequin - A small ceramic soufflé dish with a 4-oz. capacity.

Ramen - A Japanese dish of noodles in broth garnished with small pieces of meat and vegetables. Packets of such instant noodles and dehydrated broth.

Ranch Beans - A dish of dry pinto beans cooked in water and flavored with onions, garlic and bacon.

Ranchero - A Spanish term for a dish prepared country style, usually containing tomatoes, peppers, onions and garlic.

Rancidity - A chemical change in fats caused by exposure to air, light or heat that results in objectionable flavors and odors.

Rape - A vegetable (Brassica napus) related to the cabbage and turnip families it has a tall, leafy, green stalk with scattered clusters of tiny broccoli-like florets and a pungent, bitter flavor also known as broccoli rabe, brocoletti di rape and rapini.

Rapeseeds - Seeds of the rape they are used to make a cooking oil marketed as canola oil.

Ras el Hanout - This is a powdered spice mixture, used in Arabic and north African cooking, with a sweet and pungent flavor. See the definition under charmoula for a description of the ingredients and its applications.

Raspberry - A small ovoid or conical berry (Rubus idaeus) composed of many connecting drupelets (tiny individual sections of fruit, each with its own seed) surrounding a central core it has a sweet, slightly acidic flavor, the three principal varieties are black, golden and red.

Raspberry Sauce - A thick pourable mixture of pureed fresh or frozen raspberries blended with sugar and often flavored with Chambord, Kirschwasser or framboise used for desserts.

Ratatouille - A vegetable ragout made in France’s Provence region from tomatoes, eggplant, zucchini, onions, garlic, sweet peppers and herbs simmered in olive oil.

Ravioli - Italian for little wraps and used to describe small squares or rounds of pasta stuffed with meat, cheese or vegetables.

Ravioli Mold - A metal tray with fluted-edge indentions the pasta dough is laid on the tray, filled, and another sheet of dough is placed on top a rolling pin is then used to seal and cut the layered pasta.

Raw Sugar - Sugar in the initial stages of refining according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. True raw sugar is unfit for direct use as a food ingredient.

Reamer - A cone-shaped wooden utensil with a ridged surface used for extracting juice from fruit, particularly citrus.

Recipe - A set of written instructions for producing a specific food or beverage also known as a formula (especially with regards to baked goods).

Rye Flour - A flour milled from rye seeds it has a dark color and low gluten-forming potential it is often combined with wheat flour for baking.

Sabayon - A foamy, stirred French custard sauce made by whisking eggs, sugar and wine over low heat known in Italian as zabaglione.

Sable - A rich short cookies similar to shortbread.

Sachet sachet d’epices - A French seasoning blend of aromatic ingredients tied in a cheesecloth bag and used to flavor stocks, sauces, soups and stews a standard sachet consists of parsley stems, cracked peppercorns, dried thyme, cloves and sometimes garlic.

Safflower - A plant (Carthamus tincotorius) with a flower that looks like a saffron crocus its flavorless threads have a deep burnt orange color and are used as a food coloring also known as bastard saffron, false saffron, haspir, Mexican saffron and saffron thistle.

Safflower oil - A viscous oil obtained from the seeds of the safflower higher in polyunsaturated fats than any other oil it has a strong flavor, a rich yellow color and a high smoke point and does not solidify when chilled.

S affron - A spice that is the dried yellow-orange stigma of a crocus’s purple flower (Crocus sativus) native to the Middle East, it has a slightly bitter, honeylike flavor and a strong, pungent aroma used as a flavoring and yellow coloring agent.

Sage - An herb (Salvia officinalis) native to the Mediterranean region soft, slender, slightly furry, gray-green leaves and a pungent, slightly bitter, musty mint flavor used for medicinal and culinary purposes available fresh or dried and chopped, whole or rubbed.

Sake - A clear Japanese wine made from fermented rice and served hot or cold because of its grain base, it is sometimes categorized as a beer also known as rice wine.

Salad - A single food or a mix of different foods accompanied or bound by a dressing it can be served as an appetizer, a second course after an appetizer, an entrée or a course following the entrée or dessert and can contain almost any food.

Salad, Composed - A salad whose ingredients (greens, garnishes and dressing) are arranged carefully and artfully on the plate.

Salad, Tossed - A salad whose ingredients (greens, garnishes and dressing) are placed in a bowl and tossed to combine.

Salad Greens - Any of a variety of leafy green vegetables that are usually eaten raw.

Salad Spinner - A tool used to remove moisture from the surface of salad greens the produce is held in a perforated bowl sitting inside a container the inner container is spun, displacing the water through centrifugal forces and through the perforations into the outer container.

Salamander - A small overhead broiler used primarily to finish or top-brown foods. A tool with a heavy iron head attached to a metal shaft with a wooden handle heated over a burner and held closely over a dish to brown the food.

S alami - A style of Italian sausages made from pork and beef, highly seasoned with garlic and spices rarely smoked, they are cured and air-dried and vary in size, shape and seasonings (e.g., Genoa and cotto).

Salisbury Steak - A beef patty seasoned with parsley, broiled or fried with onions and served with a gravy made from the pan drippings.

Salmon - A large family of anadromous fish found in the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans generally, they have a silver to gray skin, a pink-red flesh, a firm texture and a rich flavor principal varieties include the Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon and coho salmon.

Salsa - Spanish for sauce. Traditionally, a Mexican cold sauce made from tomatoes flavored with cilantro, chiles and onions. Generally, a cold chunky mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits and/or vegetables used as a sauce or dip.

Salt - A substance resulting from the chemical interaction of an acid and a base, usually sodium and chloride. A white granular substance (sodium chloride) used to season foods.

Salt Cod - Cod that has been salted and dried to preserve it for long periods of time. Salt cod is evident in cuisines of the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas. To reconstitute the fish, you must soak it in many changes of fresh water to remove the excess salt. You may then poach the fish until it is just flaking off the bone, or use it raw for other preparations.

Salt Curing - The process of surrounding a food with salt or a mixture of salt, sugar, nitrite-based curing salt, herbs and spices salt curing dehydrates the food, inhibits bacterial growth and adds flavor.

Salt Mill - A handheld tool used to grind granules of sea salt.

Salt Pork - Very fatty pork, usually from the hog’s sides and belly, cured in salt and used principally as a cooking fat or flavoring also known as corned belly bacon and white bacon.

S altimbocca - An Italian dish of veal scallops sautéed in butter, topped with thin slices of prosciutto and braised in white wine.

Saltpeter - The name for potassium nitrate, which is used primarily in the meat industry to help preserve cured meats. It gives a distinctive pink color to hams and bacon. There are recent reports from the USDA that nitrates, and nitrites are carcinogenic.

Sambuca - An anise-flavored, not-to-sweet Italian liqueur which is usually served with 2 or 3 dark-roasted coffee beans floating on top.

Samosa - An Indian snack of deep fried dumplings stuffed with curried vegetables. Most common of the fillings is potatoes or cauliflower with peas.

Sanding Sugar - Granulated Sugar with a large, coarse crystal structure that prevents it from dissolving easily used for decorating cookies and pastries.

Sandwich - Slices of bread separated by any of a wide variety of fillings such as meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, cheeses, preserves, vegetables and/or condiments served hot or cold.

Sangiovese - The dominant red wine grape grown in Italy’s Tuscany region and the principal variety used for Chianti.

Sangria - A Spanish punch usually made of red wine, lemon and orange slices, sugar and sometimes soda water.

Sardine - A generic name for any of several small, soft-boned, saltwater fish, such as the pilchard, sprat, herring and alewife generally not available fresh outside the area in which they are caught and usually available smoked, salted, pickled, cured in brine or packed in tomato sauce, mustard sauce or oil. A young herring.

Sashimi - A Japanese dish of sliced raw fish served with condiments such as soy sauce, daikon, wasabi or ginger.

Sassafras - An aromatic, native American tree (Sassafras albidum) belonging to the laurel family the bark of the root is dried and used as a flavoring for root beer, and the leaves are pounded to make file powder.

Sate Satay - A Southeast Asian dish consisting of small cubes or strips of meat, fish or poultry threaded on skewers and grilled or broiled usually served with a spicy peanut sauce.

Sauce - To add a sauce to flavor or season a food with a sauce. A thickened liquid or semiliquid preparation used to flavor and enhance other foods.

Saucepan - A round metal cooking vessel with one long handle and straight or sloped sides generally smaller and shallower than a pot, it is available in a range of sizes, from 1 pt. to 4 qt., and sometimes with a fitted lid.

Sauce Whisk - An elongated whisk its nine fairly rigid looped wires create a pear-shaped outline also known as a piano-wire whisk.

Sauerkraut - A German dish of shredded, salted, fermented green cabbage, sometimes flavored with juniper berries.

Sausage - A forcemeat stuffed into a casing the principal ingredients, seasonings, shape, size, casing type, curing technique and degree of drying vary.

Sauteing - A dry-heat cooking method that uses conduction to transfer heat from a hot pan to food with the aid of a small amount of hot fat cooking is usually done quickly over high temperatures.

Sauternes - A grape-growing and wine-producing district in France’s Bordeaux region known for the white wine of the same name. A wine made from overly ripe grapes (usually Sauvignon Blanc or Semillon) affected by the noble rot it is sweet, complex and honeyed.

Sauteuse - The basic sauté pan with sloping sides and a single long handle.

Sautoir - A sauté pan with straight sides and a single long handle (if very large, it may have a loop handle on the other side) used to fry foods quickly in a limited amount of fat.

Sauvignon Blanc - A white wine grape grown extensively in France’s Bordeaux and Loire regions, California, Australia and New Zealand also known as Blanc Fume (especially in the Loire Valley) and Muskat-Silvaner (in Germany and Austria). A white wine made from this grape, generally known for its acidity and grassy or herbaceous aroma and semisweet character.

Savarin - A ring-shaped cake made of a rich yeast dough, soaked with a rum syrup, and filled with pastry or whipped cream.

Savory - A food that is not sweet. An herb of the mint family.

Savoy Cabbage - A member of the cabbage family with a spherical, relatively loose head of curly, wrinkled leaves in variegated shades of green and purple it has a milder flavor than that of red or green cabbage.

Scald - To heat a liquid, usually milk, to just below the boiling point.

Scales - Equipment used to measure the weight of an object.

Scallions - The immature green stalks of a bulb onion. A variety of onion with a small white bulb and long, straight, hollow green leaves. A bulbless onion with these green stalks also known as green onions, spring onions and bunch onions.

Scallop - To cook a food (e.g., potatoes) by layering it with cream or a sauce and usually topping it with crumbs before baking. To form a raised, decorative rim on a pie crust.

Scallops - A family of bivalve mollusks found in saltwater regions worldwide they have rounded, fan-shaped shells with small ears or wings at the hinge the adductor muscle generally has an ivory or pinkish-beige color that becomes white when cooked, a tender texture and a sweet flavor most scallops are shucked aboard ship significant domestic varieties include the bay scallop, calico scallop, Pacific pink scallop and sea scallop.

Scampi - Italian for a small lobster. An American dish of large shrimp cooked in butter, seasoned with lemon juice, garlic and white wine also known as shrimp scampi.

Scant - A traditional measuring term for just barely (e.g., 1 scant teaspoon).

Scent - A tasting term for the pleasant odor or smell of a food (particularly fresh fruits, vegetables and cheeses) or beverage (e.g., wine beer or distilled spirit).

Schnapps - A group of Dutch or German strong, colorless alcoholic spirits distilled from grains or potatoes they are often flavored (e.g., peach schnapps and peppermint schnapps).

Scone - A traditional Scottish quick bread originally made with oats and cooked on a griddle. A rich, delicate quick bread similar to a biscuit it is sometimes studded with raisins or other dried or fresh fruit and is usually served with jam, butter or clotted cream.

Score - To make shallow cuts in meat or fish, usually in a diamond pattern done for decorative purposes, to assist in absorbing flavors and to tenderize the product.

Scotch Egg - A British dish of a hard-cooked egg coated with sausage, dipped into beaten egg, rolled in bread crumbs and deep-fried served halved, hot or cold.

Scramble - To mix a food or foods until well blended.

Scrape Down - To remove batter or dough from the sides of a mixing bowl with a spatula the material gathered is typically added to the bulk of dough or batter in the bowl.

Scum - The froth that forms on the top of boiling liquids it usually contains impurities and other undesirable items and is removed with a skimmer.

Seafood - Shellfish. Shellfish and other small, edible marine creatures. Saltwater shellfish. Saltwater shellfish and fish. All shellfish and fish, saltwater and freshwater.

Sear - To brown food quickly over high heat usually done as a preparatory step for combination cooking methods.

Sea Salt - Salt recovered through the evaporation of seawaters it is available in fine and coarse crystals and is used for cooking and preserving.

Season - Traditionally, to enhance a food’s flavor by adding salt. More commonly, to enhance a food’s flavor by adding salt and/or ground pepper as well as herbs and other spices other than adding salt and pepper, seasoning is usually done by the chef and not by the diner. To mature and bring a food (usually beef or game) to a proper condition by aging or special preparation. To prepare a pot, pan or other cooking surface to reduce or to prevent sticking.

Seasoned Salt - A seasoning blend its primary ingredient is salt, with flavorings such as celery, garlic or onion added.

Sec - French for dry and used to describe a dry (not sweet) wine. A medium-sweet Champagne or sparkling wine it has 1.7-3.5% sugar.

Self-Rising Flour - An all-purpose white wheat flour to which salt and baking powder have been added.

Seltzer Seltzer Water - A mineral water from the town of Nieder Selters in Germany’s Weisbaden region. A flavorless water with induced carbonation consumed plain or used as a mixer for alcoholic drinks and soda fountain confections also known as club soda and soda water.

Semifreddo - Meaning "half cold", this is gelato with whipped cream folded into it.

Semisweet Chocolate - A type of chocolate containing moderate amounts of sugar and from 15 to 35% chocolate liquor usually sold in bars or chips and eaten as a candy or used for baking.

Semolina - A grainy, pale yellow flour coarsely ground from wheat (usually durum or other hard wheats) with a high protein content and gluten-forming potential used principally for pasta dough.

Serrano – A short, tapered fresh chile with a green or orange-red color, a thick flesh and a very hot flavor.

Serrated Edge - The cutting edge of a knife generally used for slicing items with a hard exterior and a soft interior (e.g., crusty bread or tomato) the blade has a series of tiny, sharp V-shaped teeth that saw the food.

Sesame Seeds - The tiny, flat seeds of a plant (Sesamum indicum) native to India they have a nutty, slightly sweet flavor and are available with a red, brown, black or grayish-ivory color also known as benne seeds.

Set - To allow a mixture to thicken or congeal, usually by chilling (e.g., gelatin).

Seven-Minute Frosting - A fluffy meringue frosting made by beating egg whites, sugar and corn syrup together in a double boiler until stiff peaks form also known as seafoam frosting and foam frosting.

Seven-Spice Powder - A spice blend generally consisting of ground anise pepper, sesame seeds, flax seeds, rapeseeds, poppy seeds, nori and dried tangerine (or orange) peel used in Japanese cuisine.

Seviche - A Spanish dish of raw fish, scallops, or shrimp marinated in citrus juices until the flesh becomes "cooked". Onions, peppers, and chiles are then added to finish the dish.

Sfoglia - A thin, flat sheet of pasta dough that can be cut into ribbons, circles, squares or other shapes.

Shallot - A member of the onion family (Allium ascalonicum) native to the Middle East and formed like garlic, with a head composed of several cloves covered in a thin papery skin the outer covering can be pale brown, bronze, pale gray or rose it has a pink-tinged ivory-colored flesh and a flavor that is more subtle than that of onion and less harsh than that of garlic.

Shallow Poaching - A moist-heat cooking method that combines poaching and steaming the food (usually fish) is placed on a vegetable bed and partially covered with a liquid (cuisson) and simmered.

Sheperd’s Pie - An old English dish of ground meat, usually lamb or mutton, and sometimes vegetables such as corn or peas, bound with a gravy, topped with mashed potatoes and baked.

Sherbet - A frozen dessert made with fruit juice, sugar and water it can also contain milk, cream and egg whites.

Sherry - A fortified wine made principally from the Palomino grape in a delimited district in southern Spain centering around the city of Jerez de la Frontera a sherry can range from pale gold and bone dry to dark brown and very sweet its distinctive flavor and aroma are partly the result of a flor forming during the solera.

Sherry Vinegar - A nutty brown-colored vinegar with a full, round flavor made from sherry and aged in wooden barrels in a process similar to that used to make sherry.

Shiitake - A mushroom (Lentinus edodes) native to Japan and now cultivated in the United States it has a tough stem that is usually not eaten and a dark brown cap that has a velvety texture and a meaty, smoky flavor available fresh and dried also known as black forest mushroom, flower mushroom winter mushroom, doubloom and golden oak.

Shirred Eggs - Eggs covered with milk or cream and sometimes bread crumbs and baked in a small dish until the whites are firm.

Shish Kebab - A Mediterranean dish of marinated meats (usually lamb or beef) and vegetables threaded on a skewer and grilled or broiled also known as shashlik. A term used imprecisely to describe a grilled or broiled skewer of meats, poultry, shellfish, firm fish, vegetables and/or fruits the foods are often marinated.

Shocking - Submerging a food in cold water to quickly cool it and prevent further cooking, also known as shocking usually used for vegetables.

Shoofly Pie - A Pennsylvania German dessert consisting of a flaky pastry shell filled with a spicy molasses and brown sugar custard.

Short Ribs - A fabricated cut of the beef primal short plate consisting of not more than five ribs (numbers 6-10) it is meaty and has a high percentage of connective tissue also known as plate short ribs and beef ribs. A fabricated cut of the beef primal chuck they are rectangular chunks of meat, typically 2-3 in. long, with layers of fat, meat, bone and connective tissue.

S hortbread - A rich, crumbly British butter cookie the dough is traditionally formed into a circle and cut into pie-shaped wedges called petticoat tails.

Shortcake - A dessert made with a sweet biscuit split in half and filled with fresh fruit, especially strawberries, and whipped cream angel food cake or sponge cake is sometimes used instead of a biscuit.

Shortening - A white, flavorless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep-frying. Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands.

Shoyu - Japanese for Soy Sauce.

Shred - To cut into thin but irregular strips.

Shrimp - Any of several varieties of crustaceans found world-wide, particularly in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and Gulf of Mexico generally, they have 10 legs, a shell that can be light brown, pink, red, grayish-white, yellow, gray-green or dark green, a lean, white flesh and a rich, sweet flavor usually sold according to count (number per pound) and categorized as colossal (10 or less per pound). Significant varieties, which are generally distinguished by shell color, include brown, pink, white, Caribbean white, sea bob and royal red shrimps.

S hrimp Deveiner - A tool with a handle and a curved blade with a serrated tip the tool follows the arc of the shrimp’s shell as it is pushed from the head to the tail, the ridged edge removes the intestinal vein while the upper edge cuts the shell.

Shrinkage - Loss of weight or volume during storage or preparation of a food it is usually caused by a loss of moisture.

Shuck - A shell, pod or husk. To remove the edible portion of a food (for example, clam meat, peas or an ear of corn) from its shell, pod or husk.

Side Dish - The name given to a dish such as a starch or vegetable that accompanies the main dish or entrée usually served in a separate dish.

Side Masking - The technique of coating only the sides of a cake with garnish.

Sieve - To strain a liquid from a food through the fine mesh or perforated holes of a strainer or sieve. To rub or press food through a sieve or strainer with a utensil such as the back of a spoon.

Sift - To pass dry ingredients, such as flour and baking powder, through a sieve or sifter to remove lumps and blend and aerate the ingredients.

Sifter - A handheld utensil used to sift dry ingredients, especially flour it consists of a cylinder with four curved rods connected to a hand crank the rods brush the contents through a fine mesh screen battery-powered models are available also known as a flour sifter.

Silverskin - The tough connective tissue that surrounds certain muscles.

Simmering - A moist-heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 185-205F) liquid to the food submerged in it. Maintainng the temperature of a liquid just below the boiling point.

Simple Syrup - A syrup made by mixing equal parts of sugar and water and then boiling until the sugar dissolves it is used for glazing and moistening cakes and pastries and in beverages and sorbets also known as bar syrup.

S kate Wings - This is the edible portion of the skate. The flesh, when cooked, separates into little fingers of meat and has a distinctive rich, gelatinous texture. The taste is similar to that of scallops.

Smorgasbord - A Swedish buffet of many dishes served as hors d oeuvres or a full meal. Similar buffets are served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the Soviet Union. Common elements of a smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and sturgeon, and a selection of canapés.

Skewer - To impale small pieces of meat or other food on a skewer. A long, narrow, sharp-pointed metal or wooden pin that is put through the center of a large piece of food (particularly meat) or several small pieces of meat in order for them to be cooked together.

Skim - To remove the upper part of a liquid while leaving the rest intact (e.g., removing fat from a liquid or scum from a soup or stew).

Skimmer - A long-handed tool with a shallow mesh or perforated bowl used for skimming stocks and removing food from a liquid.

Skin - To remove the skin, peel or outer layer from a food, such as poultry, fish, fruits or vegetables, before or after cooking.

Slice - To cut a food into relatively broad, thin pieces. The cut pieces of the food. A triangular spatula used for lifting, especially cakes and fish.

Slurry - A mixture of raw starch and a cold liquid used for thickening.

Small Sauces - Also known as compound sauces made by adding one or more ingredients to a leading sauce they are grouped together into families based on their leading sauce some small sauces have a variety of uses, while others are traditional accompaniments for specific foods.

Smoking - A method of preserving and flavoring foods by exposing them to smoke this includes (1) cold smoking, in which the foods are not fully cooked, and (2) hot smoking, in which the foods are cooked also known as smoke curing.

Smoothie - A beverage made by pureeing fruits or vegetables with juice, yogurt, milk and/or ice cream to a thick consistency nutrient supplements are sometimes added served chilled.

S’mores - Confections made by sandwiching milk chocolate and marshmallows between graham crackers and heating the sandwich, often over an open fire, until the chocolate melts.

Smother - A cooking method in which one food is completely covered with another food or sauce while baking or braising in a covered container.

Snickerdoodle - A cookie with a crackly surface usually flavored with cinnamon and nutmeg and coated in sugar before baking.

Snow Crab - A variety of crab found in the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Oregon it has long, slender legs, a white flesh with vivid red markings, a delicate, succulent flavor and a tender texture also known as queen crab, spider crab and tanner crab.

S now Pea - A bean with a bright green pod and small, paler green seeds the thin, crisp pod and the tender, sweet seeds are eaten cooked or raw also known as the Chinese snow pea and sugar pea.

Soba Noodle - Buckwheat noodles resembling spaghetti, used in Japanese cooking.

Sodium Bicarbonate - A food additive used as a leavening agent also known as baking soda.

Soft-Ball Stage - A test for the density of sugar syrup the point at which a drop of boiling sugar will form a soft sticky ball when dropped in cold water equivalent to approximately 234-240F on a candy thermometer.

Soft-Boiled Egg Soft-Cooked Egg - An egg simmered in its shell, at least until some of the white has solidified, usually 3-5 minutes.

Soft-Crack Stage - A test for the density of sugar syrup the point at which a drop of boiling sugar will separate into firm but bendable strands when dropped in cold water equivalent to approximately 270-290F on a candy thermometer.

Soften - To prepare a food, usually butter, by leaving it at room temperature until it becomes pliable but not runny.

Sommelier - The person at a restaurant in charge of the wine cellar (and sometimes all other beverages, alcoholic or not) he or she generally assists patrons in selecting wine and then serves it also known as the wine steward or wine captain.

Sopaipilla - A crisp deep-fried Mexican pastry or bread that is puffy with a hollow center usually served with honey or a cinnamon-flavored syrup.

Sorbet - A soft, smooth frozen dish made with pureed fruit or fruit juice and sugar and sometimes flavored with liqueur, wine or coffee served as a dessert or a palate cleanser between courses.

Sorrel - Low perennial herb with acid leaves. It is used to flavor sauces.

Soufflé - A sweet or savory French dish made with a custard base lightened with whipped egg whites and then baked the whipped egg whites cause the dish to puff.

Soufflé Mold - A round, porcelain mold with a ridged exterior and a straight, smooth interior available in 2- to 3.5-qt. capacities.

Soup - A combination of meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, vegetables and/or fruits cooked in a liquid it can be garnished with any of an extremely wide range of garnishes, can be hot or cold, sweet or savory, thin or thick and served as a first course or main dish.

Soup Bones - Bones from the forshanks and/or hindshanks of a beef or veal carcass rich with marrow, they are used for stocks and soups.

Sour - To ferment. To spoil or become rancid. An acidic, tart, possible unpleasant flavor.

Sour Cream - Pasteurized, homogenized light cream (containing not less than 18% milkfat) fermented by the bacteria Streptococcus lactis it has a tangy flavor, a gel-like body and a white color used as a condiment and for baking and cooking.

Sourdough - A bread dough leavened with a fermented starter this gives the bread a tangy, slightly sour flavor.

Soy Milk - A pale yellow liquid made by pressing ground cooked soybeans it has a slightly bitter flavor and is used for people with milk allergies and in infant formulas and cooking available plain or flavored with honey or carob.

Soy Sauce - A sauce made from fermented boiled soybeans and roasted wheat or barley its color ranges from light to dark brown and its flavor is generally rich and salty (a low-sodium version is available) used extensively in Asian cuisines (especially Chinese and Japanese) as a flavoring, condiment and sometimes a cooking medium.

Soybean Soyabean Soy Pea - A versatile legume whose beans are used to make a variety of products, including curds, milk and soy sauce the pods are tan to black with a tawny to gray fuzz, and the beans, which range from pea to cherry sized, can be red, yellow, green, brown or black and have a bland flavor also known as soi and soya.

Spaghetti - Italian for a length of cord or string and used to describe long, thin, solid rods of pasta with a circular cross section. In the United States, a term used imprecisely to describe any of several types of long, solid strands of pasta with varying widths and either oval, rectangular or circular cross sections.

S paghetti Squash - A large watermelon-shaped winter squash (Cucurbita pepo) with a creamy yellow shell and a slightly nutty-flavored flesh that separates into yellow-gold spaghetti-like strands when cooked also known as noodle squash and vegetable spaghetti.

Spanakopita - A Greek dish consisting of phyllo dough baked with a stuffing of feta cheese and spinach bound with an egg.

Spareribs - A fabricated cut of the pork primal belly it is a long, narrow cut containing the lower portion of the ribs and breastbone.

Sparkling - The bubbly characteristic of a wine whose effervescence is induced by the methode champenoise or Charmat process.

Spatula - A utensil with a handle and a broad or narrow, long or short, flexible or rigid flat blade.

Spatula, Rubber - A spatula with a beveled and slightly curved rectangular rubber blade available with blades ranging from 1 X 2 to 3 X 5 in. used to press and smooth foods, remove foods from bowls and fold and stir ingredients.

Spatula, Wooden - A spatula with a wooden blade used to mix foods when high heats are present or to turn food or remove it from a heat source or cookware.

Spatzle - This is a coarse noodle from Alsace and Germany made of flour, eggs, oil, and water. The soft dough is dropped into boiling water(with a spatzle press) and poached until cooked through. The noodle is then fried in butter or oil and served as a side dish to meat dishes. Spatzle may also be flavored with cheese, mushrooms, and herbs.

Spearmint - An herb (Menta spicata) and member of the mint family it has soft, bright green leaves and a tart menthol flavor and aroma that is milder than that of peppermint used as a flavoring, garnish and tisane.

Speck - Cured and smoked pork flank.

Spelt - A hard wheat kernel with the husk attached used as a thickener in soups or served as a side dish.

Spice Cake - A cake flavored with cinnamon and nutmeg and studded with dried and candied fruits.

Spice Mill - A tool similar to a meat grinder with a clamp to fix it to the work surface electric grinders are also available.

Spices - Any of a large group of aromatic plants whose bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries are used as a flavoring usually available dried, either whole or ground.

Spicy - A tasting term for a food with a predominant flavor from one or more spices although the flavors can range from very mild to very hot, the term is more often used to describe hot, pungent foods.

Spider - A hand tool with a long handle attached to a mesh disk used for skimming stocks or removing foods from liquids, especially hot fat.

Spiedini - An Italian word for skewers of meat or fish grilled over a flame or under a broiler.

Spinach - A vegetable (Spinacea oleracea) with dark green, spear-shaped leaves that can be curled or smooth and are attached to thin stems the leaves have a slightly bitter flavor and are eaten raw or cooked also known as Persian herb.

Spit - A thin metal bar on which meat, poultry or game is placed to be roasted before an open fire.

Splash – An imprecise measure of volume for a liquid usually a small amount. A small amount of a liquid ingredient added to a drink or other food item.

Sponge - A soupy mixture of flour, liquid and yeast used as the first stage in making certain breads the sponge is allowed to ferment, then the remaining ingredients are incorporated and the bread is finished a sponge gives the bread a slightly tangy flavor and a denser texture. A light dessert made with whipped gelatin, beaten egg whites or whipped cream.

Sprig - A small branch of a leafy substance such as thyme or rosemary.

Spring Roll - A smaller, more delicate version of the egg roll it is wrapped in rice paper and traditionally eaten on the first day of spring.

Springform Pan - A circular baking pan with a separate bottom and a side wall held together with a clamp that is released to free the baked product used primarily for baking cheesecakes.

Sprinkle - To scatter small amounts of a dry substance or drops of liquid over the surface of a food.

Spritz Cookie - A small buttery cookie formed by forcing the dough through a cookie press or pastry bag also known as bagged cookie.

Sprouts - The very young shoots emerging from germinated seeds generally, they have a soft texture, a white or yellow stem, a green leaf bud and a delicate, sometimes nutty flavor.

Spun Sugar - A sugar syrup cooked to the hard-crack stage 310F, then drawn out into fine, golden threads with a fork or whisk these threads are used to decorate desserts and pastries.

Squash - The edible fleshy fruit of various members of the gourd (Cucurbitaceae) family generally divided into two categories based on peak season and skin type: summer and winter. A British beverage made by diluting a sweetened citrus concentrate, usually with soda water.

Squash, Summer - Any of several varieties of squashes with edible thin skins, soft seeds, a moist flesh and a mild flavor they have a peak season of April through September and can be eaten raw or grilled, sautéed, steamed or baked.

S quash, Winter - Any of several varieties of squashes with hard skins (called shells) and hard seeds, neither of which are generally eaten the flesh, which is usually not eaten raw, tends to be sweeter and more strongly flavored than the flesh of summer squashes winter squashes have a peak season between October and March and can be baked, steamed, sautéed or pureed for soups and pie fillings.

Squash Blossoms - The edible blossoms of both winter and summer squashes usually stuffed and fried, they have a slight squash flavor.

Squid - Any of several varieties of cephalopod mollusks found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans generally, they have a long, slender body, an elongated head and tentacles, an ivory-white flesh, a firm, tender texture and a mild, sweet flavor they vary greatly in size and are available whole or in steaks also known as inkfish.

Stainless Steel - An alloy of steel, usually with chromium it is strong and will not rust or corrode when used for a knife blade, it is difficult to sharpen but holds its edge when used for cookware, it does not react with acids but is a poor heat conductor, so it is sometimes sandwiched with copper.

Stale - A tasting term for a food or beverage that has lost its freshness because of age, moisture loss or improper storage. A beer- and wine-tasting term for a product that has lost its lively, fresh, youthful character and has become flat, dull, musty and flavorless often the result of a beverage being kept too long.

Standard Breading Procedure - The procedure for coating foods with crumbs or meal by passing the food through flour, then an egg wash and then the crumbs it gives foods a relatively thick, crisp coating when deep-fried or pan-fried.

Staples - Certain foods regularly used throughout the kitchen. Certain foods, usually starches, that help form the basis for a regional or national cuisine and are principal components in the diet.

Star Anise - The dried, dark brown, star-shaped fruit of the Chinese magnolia its seeds have a pungent, bitter licorice flavor and are available whole or ground the fruit is used in Chinese cuisine and as an ingredient in Chinese five-spice powder also known as badian and Chinese anise.

Steamer - An appliance used to steam foods in a closed compartment the steam is generated by a built-in heat source. An assemblage of two pots and a lid used on a stove top to steam foods the bottom pot holds the water, and the upper pot, which rests on or in the bottom pot and has a perforated bottom, holds the food also known as a vegetable steamer.

Steamer Basket - A collapsible basket with three or four short legs and numerous overlapping petals that open to a circle with an 8- to 10-in. diameter the basket sits in a pot of boiling liquid holding the food above the liquid the petals are perforated to allow the rising steam to cook the foods also known as an expandable steamer basket.

Steaming - A moist-heat cooking method in which heat is transferred by direct contact from steam to the food being cooked the food to be steamed is placed in a basket or rack above a boiling liquid in a covered pan.

S teel - A tool, usually made of steel, used to hone or straighten knife blades.

Steep - To soak a food or seasoning in a hot liquid to extract flavors or impurities or to soften the item’s texture.

Stem – The slender, vertical part of a goblet, wineglass or other glass between the bowl and the base. The handle of a spoon. The stalk of a mushroom, supporting the cap also known as a stipe.

Stewing - A combination cooking method similar to braising but generally involving smaller pieces of meat that are first blanched and then served with a sauce and various garnishes.

Sticky Bun - A sweet yeast roll flavored with cinnamon and brown sugar usually shaped into a pinwheel and baked atop a layer of butter and sugar, which caramelizes and becomes sticky.

Stiff But Not Dry - A culinary term for egg whites that are beaten until they hold firm peaks and are still glossy they are moist and not too finely grained.

Stir-Fry - A dry-heat cooking method similar to sautéing in which foods are cooked over very high heat with little fat while stirring constantly and briskly usually done in a wok.

Stirring - A mixing method in which ingredients are gently mixed until blended using a spoon, whisk or rubber spatula.

Stock - A clear, unthickened liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry or fish and their bones as well as from a mirepoix, other vegetables and seasonings used for soups and sauces.

Stockpot - A large pot that is taller than it is wide, with two handles, a flat lid, a capacity of 8-20 qt. and sometimes a spigot at the bottom to release liquid contents used for making stocks or soups or boiling large amounts of water for pasta.

Stollen - A sweet German yeast bread filled with dried fruit, shaped like a folded oval and topped with a confectioners sugar icing and candied cherries.

S tone Crab - A variety of crab found in the Atlantic Ocean from the Carolinas to Florida it has a purple or reddish-brown mottled shell, large claws with black tips and firm, white claw meat with a sweet flavor similar to that of lobster only the claws can be marketed they have an average weight of 2.5-5.5 oz.

Stout - A dark, bittersweet and heavy-bodied beer made with roasted malt and a relatively high hops content it is fermented with a top-fermenting yeast.

Straight Dough Method - A mixing method for yeast breads in which all ingredients are simply combined and mixed.

Strain - To pour foods through a sieve, mesh strainer or cheese-cloth to separate or remove the liquid component from solids.

Strawberry - A low-growing plant with a conical berry that has tiny seeds on the outside of its red skin the berry has a red to white juicy flesh and a sweet flavor.

Streusel - A crumbly mixture of fat, flour, sugar and sometimes nuts and spices used to top baked goods.

Strudel - A long rectangular German pastry made with many layers of a very thin dough rolled around a sweet or savory filling and baked until crisp and golden.

Stuff - To fill a cavity in a food with another food.

Stuffing - A seasoned mixture of foods used to fill a natural or created cavity in poultry, meats, fish and vegetables or around which a strip of poultry, meat shellfish, fish or vegetables may be rolled.

Submersion Poaching - A poaching method in which the food is completely covered with the poaching liquid.

Succotash - An American Southern dish of corn, lima beans and sometimes red and green peppers.

Sucrose - The chemical name for refined or table sugar, it is refined from the raw sugars found in the large tropical grass called sugar cane and the root of the sugar beet.

Sucs - The savory juices released by meats and fish during cooking generally, they are the caramelized juices left on the bottom of a sauté or roasting pan before deglazing.

Sugar - A group of carbohydrates containing one (monosaccharide) or two (disaccharide) sugar units occurring naturally principally in fruits and honey, it is sweet, soluble and readily absorbed to be used as an energy source.

Sugar, Raw - A natural sugar that has been washed to remove the impurities it has a light golden color and a large crystal.

Sugar Snap Pea - A sweet pea that is a hybrid of the English pea and snow pea the bright green, crisp pod and the paler green, tender seeds are both edible.

Sugar Syrup - A syrup made from sugar and water heated gently until the sugar is dissolved also known as a simple syrup. Melted sugar cooked until it reaches a specific temperature.

Sugarcoat - To cover a food with sugar.

Sun-Dried Tomato - A tomato that has been dried in the sun it has a dark, ruby red color, a chewy texture and an intense flavor available dried or packed in oil (including flavored oils).

Sunflower Oil Sunflower Seed Oil - An oil obtained from sunflower seeds it has a pale yellow color and virtually no flavor and is high in polyunsaturated fats and low in saturated fats used for cooking and in dressings.

Sunflower Seeds - The seeds of the sunflower plant they have a hard black-and-white-striped shell that is removed before eating usually eaten dried or roasted, with or without salt.

Sunny-Side-Up Egg - An egg that is not flipped during frying its yolk should remain intact.

Superfine Sugar - A finely granulated form of refined sugar used in beverages and frostings because of the speed with which it will dissolve also known as castor (caster) sugar.

Supper - Traditionally, a light meal served in the evening. Now, the main meal of the day in the United States, served in the evening also known as dinner.

Supreme - A sauce made by adding cream to a veloute made from chicken stock it is used to make several compound sauces of the veloute family. A boneless skinless chicken breast with the first wing segment attached. An intact segment of citrus fruit with all membrane removed.

Surface-Finishing Agent - A type of food additive used to maintain or add gloss and/or inhibit surface discoloration of a food it includes protective coatings, polishes, waxes and glazes.

Sushi - A Japanese dish of cooked seasoned rice (zushi) garnished with a variety of cooked or raw ingredients such as fish, shellfish and vegetables there are four principal types of sushi: chirashi-zushi, maki-zushi, nigiri-zushi and oshi-zushi. An imprecisely used term for nigiri-zushi. An incorrectly used term for sashimi.

Sweating - Cooking a food (typically vegetables) in a small amount of fat, usually covered, over low heat without browning until the food softens and releases moisture sweating allows the food to release its flavor more quickly when it is later cooked with other foods.

Sweet - One of the basic taste sensations. Something having a flavor of or like sugar. A candy or other small sweetly flavored treat.

Sweet-and-Sour - Any of a variety of dishes that combines sweet and sour flavors, usually sugar and a vinegar-based ingredient.

Sweetbreads - The thymus gland of a calf, lamb or young hog it consists of two principal parts, the elongated throat bread and the more spherical heart bread both have a mild delicate flavor.

Sweetmeat - Any small piece of sweet candy or pastry, especially candied fruit.

Sweet Pepper - The fruit of various plants of the genus Capsicum it has a mild, sweet flavor with undertones of various fruits and spices a fresh sweet pepper can be white, yellow, orange, green, red, brown or purple, and its shape is generally conical to nearly spherical sweet peppers are rarely used dried. A term used imprecisely for a bell pepper.

Sweet Potato - The starchy tuber of a morning glory plant native to South America it is unrelated to the potato plant and yam and has a sweet flavor.

Swiss Swiss Cheese - A term used imprecisely to describe any of several large, firm, pressed-curd cheeses with an elastic body, many large holes and a mild, nutty, slightly sweet flavor.

Swiss Meringue - A mixture of stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar made by combining the ingredients, heating them over simmering water to approximately 140F, then whipping until light, fluffy and cool.

Swiss Steak - A thick piece of beef, usually round or chuck, coated with flour and browned, then braised, baked or simmered with tomatoes, onions, carrots, celery, beef broth and seasonings also known as smothered steak (especially in England).

Swordfish - A fish found in the tropical oceans off the Americas it has a long upper jaw and snout that forms a flat, sharp, double-edged sword, a dark, purplish skin that fades to white on the sides and belly, a moderately lean, gray, off-white or pink flesh that whitens when cooked, a very firm texture, a sweet mild flavor and an average market weight of 100-200 lb. usually sold as wheels or smaller cuts.

Syllabub - An English dessert comprised mainly of whipped cream sweetened with sugar and flavored with sherry, brandy, or cointreau. Lemon zest, fruit preserves or puree may also be swirled into the cream.

Syrah - A red wine grape grown in France (northern Rhone Valley), California, South Africa and Australia also known as Shiraz or Hermitage (especially in South Africa and Australia). A red wine made from this grape slow to mature and long-lived, it has a deep red color, a high tannin content and a spicy, peppery aroma.

Syrup - A thick, sweet, sticky liquid consisting of sugar dissolved in a liquid, usually water it is often flavored with spices or citrus zest. The juice of a fruit or plant boiled with sugar until thick and sticky it is usually used as a topping or sweetener.

Tabasco Sauce - The proprietary name for a hot pepper sauce made in Louisiana Tabasco peppers are mashed and fermented with salt and vinegar in barrels for 3 years.

Table Salt - Finely ground and refined rock salt it usually contains anticaking agents and other additives.

Taco - A Mexican dish consisting of a small folded corn or flour tortilla filled with beef, pork, chicken, chorizo and/or refried beans and garnished with tomatoes, lettuce, cheese, onions, guacamole, sour cream and/or salsa it can be crisp or soft.

Taffy - A soft, chewy candy made with cooked sugar, butter and flavorings the mixture is pulled repeatedly into long ropes and twisted as it cools this incorporates air and creates a shiny, opaque color the ropes of taffy are then cut into bite-sized pieces.

Tahini - A thick, oily paste made from crushed sesame seeds and used in Middle Eastern cuisines as a flavoring.

Tamale - A Mexican dish consisting of chopped meat or vegetables coated with a masa dough, wrapped in a softened corn husk and steamed sweet tamales are filled with fruit.

Tang - The portion of a knife's blade that extends inside the handle.

Tangerine - A small- to medium-sized citrus it has a thick, loose, orange rind, a dark orange, juicy flesh and a sweet flavor named after the city of Tangier, Morocco.

Tangy - A tasting term used to describe a pleasantly tart flavor. A cheese-tasting term for a cheese, typically a goat's milk or blue cheese, with a pleasing acidity or tartness.

Tannic - A wine-tasting term for an astringent, mouth-puckering wine.

Tapas - Spanish appetizers that can be hot or cold, simple or complex.

Tapenade - A thick paste made from capers, anchovies, olives, olive oil, lemon juice and seasonings in France's Provence region used as a condiment, garnish and sauce.

Tapioca - A starch extracted from the root of the cassava plant and used for thickening. A milk pudding made with processed pellets of tapioca, known as pearl tapioca.

Tarragon - An herb native to Siberia with narrow, pointed, dark green leaves, tiny gray flowers, a distinctive aniselike flavor with undertones of sage and a strong aroma available fresh and dried.

Tarragon Vinegar - A red or white wine vinegar in which tarragon has been steeped.

Tart - A shallow-sided pastry dough crust filled with a sweet or svaory mixture the tart may or may not have a top crust. A sharp, piquant, often acidic or sometimes sour flavor. A wine-tasting term for a wine that is either highly acidic but not necessarily unpleasant or one that is disagreeably sharp.

Tartare - An imprecisely used term for any dish featuring a raw ingredient.

Tartlet Pan - A small pan, 2 to 4 in. in diameter and .75 to 1.5 in. high, available in many shapes including round, oval, rectangular and square, with plain or fluted straight or sloping sides it is used for baking tartlets and usually made of tinned or black steel and generally without a removable bottom.

Tartufo - Italian for truffle tartufo bianco is a white truffle.

Taste - To test the flavor of something by placing it in the mouth or on the tongue. To sample a food or beverage. One of the five senses concerned with perceiving and distinguishing the flavors of foods and beverages.

Tawny Port - A mature, golden red port aged in wooden pipes for more than 3 years it has a softer, rounder flavor than a ruby port.

T -bone Steak - A fabricated cut of the beef primal short loin this tender cut contains a distinctive T-shaped portion of the backbone and on either side of the center bone, a large portion of the loin eye muscle and a smaller portion of the tenderloin.

Tea - An aromatic beverage made by infusing water with the cured leaves of the shrub a mild stimulant due to caffeine, a tea is generally named for its leaf type and size or region of origin. The leaves used to make the beverage. An imprecisely used term for a beverage made from steeping the leaves of shrubs, herbs or other plants in water. An imprecisely used term for a very thin, runny sauce, usually one flavored with vegetables, herbs or spices.

Tea, Afternoon - A light British meal or refreshment of bread and butter, cucumber or other delicate sandwiches, cookies, scones and Devonshire cream and the like served with a pot of tea during the late afternoon. A formal social occasion or reception at which tea and other refreshments are served.

Tea, High - A late afternoon or early evening British meal, usually quite substantial and consisting of meat and/or fish dishes, biscuits and jam, an array of cakes and pastries and a pot of tea.

Tea Ball - A perforated metal ball that holds loose tea leaves used for making tea in a cup or pot.

Tea Biscuit - British expression for any of a variety of cookies or crackers served with afternoon tea also known as a tea cake.

Teakettle - A utensil used for boiling water for teas, tisanes, filtered coffee and so on it has a broad base, a high-set handle, an often rounded or tapered top with a tightly fitting lid and sometimes a whistle on the spout to indicate when the contents have produced steam.

Temper - To bring something to the proper temperature or texture by mixing, stirring, heating or cooling (e.g., to temper eggs by slowly whisking in hot milk to avoid curdling).

Temperature Danger Zone - The broad range of temperatures between 40 and 140 degrees F in which bacteria thrive and reproduce by keeping foods out of this temperature range, the chances of an infection, intoxication or toxin-mediated infection are decreased.

Tempered Chocolate - Chocolate treated with a heating and cooling process to stablize the cocoa butter crystals tempered chocolate is shiny, smooth and unblemished by bloom.

Tempering - Heating gently and gradually. The process of slowly adding a hot liquid to eggs or other foods to raise their temperature without causing them to curdle.

Tempering Machine - An electric machine designed for melting and tempering chocolate, then holding it at the correct temperature for use in making candy or decorations.

Tempura - A Japanese dish of battered and deep-fried pieces of fish and vegetables, usually accompanied by a sauce.

Tender - A fabricated cut of the beef primal sirloin it is a trimmed, boneless steak. A strip of flesh found on the inside of the chicken breast next to the bone. A wine-tasting term for a young, light-bodied wine that is easy to drink.

Tenderize - To soften and/or break down tough muscle fibers in meat by cubing, needling, pounding, marinating in acidic ingredients, adding enzymes and/or cooking in moist heat.

Tenderloin - A flavorful and very tender muscle that runs through the beef short loin and sirloin primals it is part of T-bone and porterhouse steaks or can be cut into chateaubrian, filet mignon and tournedos.

Tequila - A spirit made in Mexico from the fermented and distilled sap and pulp of the maguey plant it has a high alcohol content, colorless to straw color and somewhat herbaceous flavor it is often sold as either blanco or plata.

Teriyaki - A Japanese dish of beef, chicken or pork marinated soy sauce, ginger, sugar and seasonings, skewered and grilled or broiled. A Japanese marinade or sauce made from soy sauce, ginger, sugar and seasonings.

Terrine - Traditionally, coarsely ground and highly seasoned meats baked without a crust in an earthenware mold and served cold. A coarsely or finely ground and highly seasoned meat, fish, shellfish, poultry and/or vegetable forcemeat baked without a crust in an earthenware mold, usually lined with pork fat, and served hot or cold. The earthenware, metal or glass mold used for such preparations usually a long, narrow rectangular loaf pan with a flared edge to hold the cover.

Texas Toast - A very thick slice of white bread that is toasted and brushed with butter often served with steaks.

T ex-Mex - A term used for food that is based on the combined cultures of Texas and Mexico these foods include burritos, nachos and tacos, and the principal flavorings include tomatoes and chiles.

Thermometer - A device designed to measure temperatures it can be calibrated in Fahrenheit and/or Celsius and can be a column of mercury with temperatures indicated on a glass tube or a stem-type thermometer in which temperatures are noted by an arrow on a dial or a digital readout.

Thermometer, Instant-Read - A thermometer used to measure the internal temperature of foods the stem is inserted into the food, producing an instant temperature readout.

Thermometer, Meat - A thermometer inserted into the meat to read the internal temperature the top of the thermometer usually has a scale indicating the temperatures of doneness for certain meats.

T hermometer, Oven - A thermometer used to test the accuracy of an oven's thermostat it must be able to withstand temperatures as high as 500 degrees F.

Thicken - The process of making a liquid substance dense by adding a thickening agent or by cooking to evaporate some of the liquid.

Thickening Agents - Ingredients used to thicken sauces, including starches, gelatin and liaisons. A type of food additive used to produce viscous solutions or dispersions, impart body and/or improve texture or consistency includes stabilizers, suspending agents, bodying agents, setting agents, jellying agents and bulking agents.

Thread Stage - A test for the density of sugar syrup the point at which a drop of boiling sugar will form a thin thread when dropped in cold water equivalent to approximately 230-234 degrees F on a candy thermometer.

Thuringer - A style of German sausages made from chopped pork and/or beef, seasoned with herbs, spices and other flavorings such as garlic, coriander or mustard they are preserved by curing, drying and smoking and have a semidry to moist, soft texture.

Thyme - A low-growing herb with small purple flowers and tiny, gray-green leaves the leaves have a strong, slightly lemony flavor and aroma used fresh and dried.

Tilapia - A generic name for several species of freshwater fish aquafarmed worldwide they generally have a gray skin, a lean white flesh, a firm texture, a sweet, mild flavor and an average market weight of 3 lb. sometimes marketed as cherry snapper or sunshine snapper, even though not members of the snapper family also known as mudfish.

Timbale - A dish, usually a custard base mixed with vegetables, meats or fish, baked in this mold. A pastry shell made with a timbale iron it can be filled with a sweet or savory mixture.

Timbale Mold - A 1 1/2 in. deep, flair-sided, round, stainless steel mold with a capacity of 4 oz. it is used for single servings of foods such as eggs in aspic.

Tiramisu - Italian for pick me up and used to describe a dessert made with layers of liqueur-soaked ladyfingers or sponge cake, sweetened mascarpone cheese and zabaglione, usually garnished with whipped cream and shaved chocolate.

Tisanes - Beverages made from herbal infusions that do not contain any tea.

Toast - To make an item crisp and hot. A piece of bread grilled or broiled on both sides. A speech made or a phrase stated before drinking a beverage in a person's or thing's honor. The beverage consumed in honor of someone or something.

Toffee - A firm but chewy candy made with brown sugar or molasses and butter Danish and English versions are hard and brittle instead of chewy. The British spelling of taffy.

Tofu - A custard-like product made from curdled soy milk from which some of the water has been removed by pressure it has a white color and a slightly nutty, bland flavor that absorbs other flavors available dried and fresh and used in Asian cuisines in soups or cooked also known as soybean curd and bean curd.

Tomatillo - A plant native to Mexico whose fruit resembles a small tomato with a papery tannish-green husk the fruit has a thin, bright green skin and a firm, crisp, pale yellow flesh with a tart, lemony-herb flavor used like a vegetable in American Southwestern and Mexican cuisines also known as jamberry, Mexican green tomato, Mexican husk tomato and husk tomato.

Tomato - The fleshy fruit of the Lycopersicon esculentum, a vine native to South America and a member of the night-shade family used like a vegetable, tomatoes are available in a range of sizes, from tiny spheres to large squat ones, and colors from green to golden yellow to ruby red.

Tomato Juice - The thick liquid produced by blending the pulp and juice of a tomato.

Tomato Paste - A thick, slightly coarse paste made from tomatoes that have been cooked for several hours, strained and reduced to form a richly flavored concentrate used as a flavoring and thickener also known as tomato concentrate.

Tomato Puree - A thick liquid made from cooked and strained tomatoes often used as a thickener for sauces.

Tomato Sauce - A French mother or leading sauce made by sauteing mirepoix and tomatoes white stock is added, and the sauce is then thickened with a roux also known as sauce tomate. A pasta sauce made from skinned, cooked, deseeded tomatoes it can be thick or thin, seasoned with a variety of herbs and spices and garnished with meat, mushrooms, onions or the like. A slightly thinned tomato puree, often seasoned, used as a base for sauces or as a flavoring or topped ingredient.

Tongs - A utensil with two long handles attached at the top there are two types: those with a heavy wire scissor action and those with a spring both are made in either stainless steel or chromed steel and are used as a retrieval tool.

Torte - In Central and Eastern European usage, refers to a rich cake in which all or part of the flour is replaced with finely chopped nuts or bread crumbs.

Tortilla - A round, thin, unleavened Mexican bread made from masa or wheat flour and lard and baked on a griddle, it is eaten plain or wrapped around or garnished with various fillings.

Tortilla Chips - Corn or flour tortillas cut into wedges and deep-fried or baked eaten as a snack, usually with a dip or salsa.

Tortilla Press - A metal utensil used to flatten tortilla dough it consists of two hinged disks: the top disk has a handle and is lowered over the ball of dough resting on the lower disk.

ostada - A Mexican dish of a crisp-fried tortilla topped with refried beans and garnished with meat, cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, sour cream, guacamole and/or salsa.

Tourner - French for to trim or to turn and used to describe the act of cutting foods, usually vegetables, into football-shaped pieces with seven equal sides and blunt ends.

Trifle - A deep-dish British layered dessert made with sponge cake, sherry, custard, jam or fruit and whipped cream.

Triple Sec - A clear, strong, orange-flavored liqueur used principally to make cocktails.

Truffle - A fungus that grows underground near the roots of certain trees, usually oaks generally spherical and of various small sizes, with a thick, rough, wrinkled skin there are two principal varieties: black and white. A rich, creamy chocolate candy made with chocolate, butter, cream, and flavorings, formed into small rough balls and coated with cocoa powder or melted chocolate.

T ruffle, Black - A truffle grown in France with a dark brown to black skin with white striations and a pungent aroma and rich flavor also known as a Perigord.

Truffle, White - A truffle grown in Italy with an off-white to grayish-tan skin and an earthy, garlicky flavor also known as a piedmontese.

Truss - To tie poultry with butcher's twine into a compact shape for cooking.

Tube Pan - A deep round baking pan with a hollow tube in the center.

Tuber - The fleshy root, stem or rhizome of a plant from which a new plant will grow some, such as potatoes, are eaten as vegetables.

Tuile - French for tile and used to describe a thin, crisp wafer cookie traditionally shaped while still hot around a curved object such as a rolling pin.

Tuna - Any of several varieties of saltwater fish of the mackerel family found in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide they generally are available as loins or smaller cuts and have a low to moderate fat content, a dark pink, flaky flesh that becomes light gray when cooked, a firm texture and a distinctive rich flavor significant varieties include albacore tuna, bluefin tuna, bonito, skipjack tuna and yellowfin tuna.

Tuna Salad - A salad of tuna typically garnished with celery and onions, bound with mayonnaise and often flavored with celery salt.

Tunneling - The holes that may form in baked goods as the result of overmixing.

Turbinado Sugar - Raw sugar that has been cleaned with steam to make it edible it is light brown and coarse, with a molasses flavor.

Turkey - One of the principal kinds of poultry recognized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) it has light and dark meat and a relatively small amount of fat.

Turkish delight - A chewy, rubbery Middle Eastern candy made with cornstarch or gelatin, honey and fruit juice, often flavored with nuts the candy is cut into small squares and coated with powdered sugar.

Turmeric - A dried, powdery spice produced from the rhizome of a tropical plant related to ginger it has a strong, spicy flavor and yellow color and is used in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisines and as a yellow coloring agent also known as Indian saffron.

Turnip - The rounded, conical root of the turnip plant it has a white skin with a purple-tinged top, a delicate, slightly sweet flavor that becomes stronger as it ages and a coarse texture.

Turnip Greens - The crinkly green leaves of the turnip plant they have a sweet, peppery flavor when young that becomes more bitter with age.

Twice-baked - An expression used to refer to a product that is baked, then reworked and baked a second time.

Udon - Thick wheat noodles used in Japanese cooking.

Ugli - A citrus fruit hybrid between a grapefruit and a tangerine native to Jamaica. It is available around the country from Winter to Spring. It has an acid-sweet flavor and is an excellent source of vitamin C.

Unbleached Flour - Wheat flour that has not been treated with a whitening agent.

Unsalted - A food-labeling term approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to describe a food prepared without the salt ordinarily used in the processed food product.

Upside-Down Cake - A dessert made by lining the bottom of a baking pan with butter, sugar and fruit, then adding a light cake batter after baking, the cake is inverted so that the glazed fruit becomes the top surface.

Vacherin - A crisp, sweet meringue shell used as a serving vessel for fruit and ice cream.

Vanilla Bean - The dried, cured podlike fruit of an orchid plant grown in tropical regions the pod contains numerous tiny black seeds both the pod and the seeds are used for flavoring.

Vanilla Custard Sauce Also known as creme anglaise a stirred custard made with egg yolks, sugar and milk or half-and-half and flavored with vanilla served with or used in dessert preparations.

Vanilla Extract - A vanilla-flavored product made by macerating chopped vanilla beans in a water-alcohol solution to extract the flavor its strength is measured in folds.

Vanilla Extract, Pure - Vanilla extract made with 13.35 oz. of vanilla beans per gallon during extraction and 35% alcohol.

Vanilla Flavoring - A combination of pure vanilla extract and imitation vanilla.

Vanilla Sugar - Granulated sugar infused with the flavor of vanilla and made by burying vanilla beans in a container of sugar for a brief time used in baked goods, creams and with fruit.

Vanillin -Whitish crystals of vanilla flavor that often develop on vanilla beans during storage. Synthetic vanilla flavoring.

Veal - Meat from calves slaughtered when younger than 9 months it has a lean, light pink flesh, a delicate flavor and a tender, firm texture.

Vegan - A vegetarian who does not eat any animal products.

Vegetables - The edible parts of plants, including the leaves, stalks, roots, tubers and flowers they are generally savory rather than sweet and often salted or otherwise dressed some are always consumed cooked, others always raw and some can be consumed either cooked or raw sometimes associated with meat, fish, shellfish and poultry as part of a meal or ingredient vegetables are mostly water and usually contain vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fats.

Vegetarian - A person who eats primarily or exclusively plant foods.

V eloute, Sauce - A French leading sauce made by thickening a veal stock, chicken stock or fish fumet with a white or golden roux also known as a blond sauce.

Velvety - A tasting term for a lush, silky, smooth texture.

Venison - The flesh of any member of the deer family, including the antelope, caribou, elk, moose, reindeer, red-tailed deer, white-tailed deer and mule deer it typically has a dark red color with very little intramuscular fat or marbling, a firm, dense, velvety texture, a mild aroma and a sweet, herbal, nutty flavor significant cuts include the loin, leg, rack and saddle.

Vent - To allow the circulation or escape of a liquid or gas. To cool a pot of hot liquid by setting the pot on blocks in a cold water bath and allowing cold water to circulate around it.

Vermicelli - Italian for little worms and used to describe very thin spaghetti available in straight rods or twisted into a cluster. A general term for any long, very thin rods of pasta or noodles.

Vermouth - A neutral white wine flavored with various herbs, spices and fruits and fortified to a minimum of 16% alcohol used as an aperitif and cocktail ingredient.

Vichyssoise - A chilled soup of potatoes and leeks. Other versions now use zucchini, apples, and carrots.

Victual - Food or other provisions.

Vidalia Onion - A large onion with a pale yellow outer layer and a sweet, juicy white flesh grown in a delimited area around Vidalia, Georgia.

Vinaigrette - A temporary emulsion of oil and vinegar seasoned with herbs, spices, salt and pepper used as a salad dressing or sauce.

Vinegar - From the French vin aigre (sour wine) a weak solution of acetic acid made from a fermented liquid such as cider, wine or beer, subjected to certain bacterial activity generally clear, the liquid can be tinted various shades depending on the base liquid and can reflect the flavor of the base liquid or be flavored by the introduction of other ingredients.

V itello Tonnato - Thinly sliced roast or braised veal, served cold with a creamy, piquant tuna sauce.

Vodka - A distilled spirit made from potatoes and various grains, principally corn, with some wheat added it is distilled at proofs ranging from 80 to 100 and is sometimes flavored.

Vol-Au-Vents - Deep, individual portion-sized puff pastry shells, often filled with a savory mixture and served as an appetizer or a main course.

Waffle – A thin, crisp, light cake with a honeycomb surface it is baked in a waffle iron and served with sweet or savory toppings.

Waldorf Salad - A salad of apples, celery and sometimes walnuts in a mayonnaise dressing.

Walnut Oil- An oil obtained by pressing walnuts it is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, has a nutty flavor and aroma and is used in salad dressings, sauces and baked goods.

Wasabi - The root of an Asian plant similar to horseradish it is ground and, when mixed with water, becomes a green-colored condiment with a sharp, pungent, fiery flavor used in Japanese cuisines.

Wash - A glaze applied to dough before baking a commonly used wash is made with whole egg and water.

Water, Artesian Well - Water obtained from an underground source the water rises to the surface under pressure.

Water Bath - See Bain Marie.

Water, Bottled - Any water, usually a still or sparkling natural water, that is bottled and sold generally consumed as an alternative to a soft drink or other nonalcoholic beverage.

Water, Carbonated - Water that has absorbed carbon dioxide the carbon dioxide produces an effervescence and increases mouth feel.

Water, Distilled - Water that has had all the minerals and impurities removed through distillation generally used for pharmaceutical purposes.

Watermelon - A category of melons native to Africa they are characterized by a very thick rind, a very juicy granular flesh with seeds generally disbursed throughout the flesh and a sweet flavor. A large to very large ovoid to spherical melon with green striped or pale to dark green rind and a pink to red flesh a seedless variety is available also known as a red watermelon.

Waterzooi - A rich Flemish stew with chicken or fish and assorted vegetables. The sauce is enriched with a liaison of cream and egg yolks.

Wax Bean - A yellow version of the green bean it has a slightly waxier pod.

Waxy Potatoes - Those with a low starch content and thin skin they are best for boiling.

Waxy Starch - The starch portion of a waxy corn sometimes used as a food additive to thicken puddings and sauces also known as amioca.

Weight - The mass or heaviness of a substance weight measurements are commonly expressed as grams, ounces and pounds.

Welsh Rarebit - Often confused as Welsh rabbit, this is a cheese sauce made with ale and seasoned with dry mustard, black pepper, and Worcestershire sauce. This is traditionally served over toast, with or without crumbled bacon. It is also a good variation of fondue and goes well with beer and ale.

Wheat - A cereal grass grown worldwide there are three principal varieties: durum, hard and soft in many climates, there can be as many as three planting cycles per year crops are sometimes identified by the planting season as winter, spring or summer wheat.

Wheat Berry - The whole, unprocessed wheat kernel it cosists of the bran, germ and endosperm.

Wheat Germ - The embryo of the wheat berry it is very oily and rich in vitamins, proteins and minerals, has a nutty flavor and is generally used as a nutritional supplement.

Whelk - A small marine snail. Whelks are poached and served hot or cold.

Whetstone - A dense, grained stone used to sharpen or hone a knife blade.

Whey - The liquid portion of coagulated milk (curds are the semisolid portion) used for whey cheese, processed foods and principally livestock feed.

W hipping - A mixing method in which foods are vigorously beaten to incorporate air a whisk or an electric mixer with its whip attachment is used.

Whisk - A utensil consisting of several wire loops joined at a handle the loops generally create a round or teardrop-shaped outline and range in sizes from 8 to 18 in. used to incorporate air into foods such as eggs, cream or sauces also known as a whip.

Whiskey - An alcoholic beverage distilled from a fermented mash of grains such as corn, rye and barley whiskys vary depending on factors such as the type and processing of the grain and water as well as the length and type of aging process. The American, English and Irish spelling for this spirit used to identify these countries' products in Scotland and Canada it is spelled whisky.

White Chocolate - A candy made from cocoa butter, sugar, milk solids and flavorings because it contains no chocolate liquor it is usually labeled white confectionary bar or coating it can be eaten as a candy or used in confections and pastries.

White Stock - A light-colored stock made from chicken, veal, beef or fish bones simmered in water with vegetables and seasonings.

Whitewash - A thin mixture or slurry of flour and cold water used like cornstarch for thickening.

White Wine Sauce - A French compound sauce made from a veloute flavored with a fish fumet or chicken stock and white wine and beaten with butter until emulsified. A French sauce made from a fish fumet or chicken stock and white wine reduced to a glaze and beaten with butter also known as sauce vin blanc.

Wiener Schnitzel - Thin slices of veal or pork breaded and fried in butter. Traditional garnishes are lemon butter, anchovies, and capers.

Whole Butter - Butter that is not clarified, whipped or reduced in fat content it may be salted or unsalted.

Whole Wheat - A flour that is either milled from the entire hulled kernel or has had some of the components restored after milling.

Wild Rice - The grain of a reed-like aquatic plant unrelated to rice grown in the United States and Canada, the grains are long, slender and black, with a distinctive earthy, nutty flavor available in three grades: giant, fancy and select.

Wine - The fermented juice of a fruit, typically freshly gathered ripe grapes.

Wintergreen - An evergreen plant with small red berries that produce a pungent oil used in jellies or to flavor candies and medicines also known as checkerberry and teaberry.

Winter Melon - A large muskmelon with a pale green rind, a white flesh and a flavor reminiscent of zucchini used in Asian cuisines in sweet and savory dishes.

Wire Mesh Strainer - A tool with a mesh bowl, sometimes reinforced with narrow crossbands and a handle available in various sizes and thicknesses of mesh it is used to strain liquids from solids or to sift dry ingredients also known as a strainer.

Wishbone - The forked bone found between the neck and breast of a chicken or turkey. The cut of chicken containing the wishbone.

Wok - Cookware with a rounded bottom and curved sides that diffuses heat and makes it easy to toss or stir contents it usually has a domed lid and two handles, although a single long-handled version is available used originally in Asian cuisines.

Won Ton - A small Chinese dumpling made from a thin dough filled with a mixture of finely minced meats, poultry, fish, shellfish and/or vegetables it can be steamed, fried or boiled and eaten as dumplings, in soups and as appetizers.

Won Ton Skins - Wafer-thin sheets of dough made from flour, eggs and salt and used to wrap fillings available in squares or circles.

Won Ton Soup - A Chinese soup consisting of chicken broth garnished with won tons, green onions, pork or chicken and/or vegetables.

Worcestershire Sauce - A thin, dark brown sauce developed in India for British colonials and first bottled in Worcester, England it consists of soy sauce, tamarind, garlic, onions, molasses, lime, anchovies, vinegar and other seasonings.

Wrap - An American sandwich consisting of a filling and spread rolled in a soft flour tortilla (unlike a classic Mexican tortilla, the one used for a wrap can be flavored with herbs, spices or the like).

Xanthan Gum - Produced from the fermentation of corn sugar. It is most commonly used as a stabilizer, emulsifier and thickener in foods such as yogurt, sour cream and salad dressings.

XXX XXXX - Label symbols used for confectioners’ sugar.

Yakitori - A Japanese dish of chicken marinated in soy sauce, sugar, and sake. The chicken is then placed on skewers and grilled or broiled.

Yam - The thick, starchy tuber of various tropical vines native to Asia and unrelated to the potato and sweet potato it has an off-white to dark brown skin and flesh that can range from creamy white to deep red it is less sweet than a sweet potato.

Yard of Ale - An elongated glass, measuring approximately 26 inches long holding 42 fluid ounces.

Yeast - A microscopic fungus that converts its food into carbon dioxide and alcohol through a metabolic process known as fermentation yeast it necessary for making beer, wine, cheese and some breads.

Y ield - The total amount of a food item created or remaining after trimming or fabrication. The total amount of a product made from a specific recipe.

Yogurt Yoghurt - A thick, tart, custardlike fermented dairy product made from cow's milk to which bacteria cultures (e.g., Streptoccus thermophilus, Thermobacterium bulgaricum and T. jogurt) have been added it has the same percentage of milkfat as the milk from which it is made.

Zabaglione - An Italian custard made with egg yolks and wine or juices, which are beaten vigorously over hot water to form a rich, creamy dessert. The custard can then be poured into glasses and chilled to be eaten later, or eaten warm with fresh fruit. Marsala is the most common wine used, though any sweet wine such as Madeira, Champagne, or Sauterne may be used.

Zakuski - The Russian version of tapas involving a lot of food and vodka.

Zampone - A specialty of the town of Modena in northern Italy, this consists of a hollowed and stuffed pig trotter which is poached and served as a part of a traditional bollito misto.

Zest - To remove strips of rind from a citrus fruit. The colored, outermost layer of citrus rind used for flavoring creams, custards and baked goods it can be candied and used as a confection or decoration.

Zester - A tool used to cut slivers of zest from citrus its short, flat blade has five small holes with sharp edges.

Ziti - Italian for bridegrooms and used to describe large, slightly curved tubes of pasta, similar to rigatoni.

Zucca - Italian for pumpkin. Italian for all manner of squashes and gourds.

Zucchini - A moderately long, cylindrical summer squash with smooth, dark green skin and a slightly bumpy surface, a creamy white-green flesh and a mild flavor also known as courgette (especially in Europe).

Zuccotto - This is an Italian form of charlotte royale. In this dessert, triangles of sponge cake are placed in a bowl to form a shell for the filling. The filling consists of stiffly whipped cream which is studded with toasted almonds, hazelnuts, chocolate chips, and candied fruit. A final layer of cake is placed over this, and when well set, the dessert is inverted onto a platter to form a large dome, reminiscent of Florence Duomo.

Zuppa Inglese - Literally translated as "English soup", this Italian dish is, in fact, a refrigerated dessert similar to the British favorite, trifle. It is made with rum sprinkled slices of sponge cake layered with a rich custard or whipped cream (or both) and candied fruit or toasted almonds (or both).



Comments:

  1. Meztiramar

    I think this is a brilliant phrase.

  2. Bourke

    Really and as I have not thought about this before

  3. Cranston

    The post is not unambiguous. you cannot rush to extremes.

  4. Akeno

    the exact phrase

  5. Avidan

    I can't take part in the discussion right now - I'm very busy. I will be released - I will definitely express my opinion on this issue.

  6. Macartan

    I am finite, I apologize, but it does not come close to me. Can the variants still exist?

  7. Hardtman

    In this nothing in there and I think this is a very good idea.



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